Sociology Ch. 8: Deviance & Crime
Terms in this set (43)
Behavior that violates significant social norms.
What are the 2 requirements of deviance?
A person must first be detected committing a deviant
Must be stigmatized by society.
Mark of social disgrace the sets the deviant apart from the rest of society.
5 functions of deviance
1. Clarify Norms
2. Unifies a Group
3. Diffuses Tension
4. Promotes Social Change
5. Provides Jobs
Robert Merton's theory of deviance -- deviance results from the strain of goals incompatible with the available means of achieving them.
People have goals (wealth, status) but not all have equal access to institutional means (education, jobs) to achieve the goals.
Strain Theory - Modes of Adaptation
1. CONFORMITY: accept culturally approved goals and the means to achieve them.
2. INNOVATION: accept goals of society, but do not use accepted/legitimate means for achieving them.
3. RITUALISM: reject goals but use accepted/legitimate means.
4. RETREATISM: reject cultural goals and reject socially accepted ways of achieving them.
5. REBELLION: reject both goals & means, and substitute a new set of goals and means to get them.
Theory of deviance that says deviance is the result of competition and social inequality. Ruling class trickle effect
Theory of deviance that suggest deviance results from a feeling of disconnection with society. Individuals who are integrated into the community are likely to conform and not deviate.
Communities in which most members have strong social bonds will have lower rates of deviance because community members exert social control over those who deviate.
4 types of social bonds (Control Theory)
According to the Control Theory, people develop bonds to the community in 4 ways:
1. form attachments
2. show commitment to community
3. have strong beliefs in a moral code
4. involved in socially legit activities
Cultural Transmission Theory
Deviance is a learned behavior through interaction with deviants, mostly primary group.
Differential association refers to the frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviants. The closer the association, the more likely the deviant behavior.
the frequency people associate with deviants increases the likelihood that they will become deviant. The closer the association, the more likely the deviant behavior.
Techniques of Neutralization (Cultural Transmission Theory)
- Deny responsibility
- Deny harm
- Deny the victim
- Condemning the authorities
- Loyalties to a group
Theory of deviance that focuses on how individuals are labeled and identified as deviant. Involves primary and secondary deviance.
occasional violation of norms, non-conformity goes undetected, not labeled as deviant by self or society
deviance is a lifestyle, labeled as deviant by self and society, person accepts the label as true (ex. troublemaker, gangbanger)
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual that strips away someone's s self-identity and stamps a new label of deviant on the person. Deviant become master status.
Any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government.
Factors that contribute to crime
large underclass, urban areas where rich and poor live close together, racism, discrimination, failure of education system, troubled families, access to handguns
What age group is more likely to commit crimes?
People under 35
social scientist who studies criminal behavior
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
Report that compiles official data on crime in the United States, published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
5 types (categories) of crime
violent crime, crimes against property, victimless crime, white-collar crime, organized crime
Offender or perpetrator uses or threatens to use force upon a victimExamples: murder, robbery
most victims are African Americans
crimes against property
Examples: burglary, larceny, vehicle theft, arson, shoplifting, and vandalism. Property crime is a crime to obtain money, property, or some other benefit. This may involve force, or the threat of force, in cases like robbery or extortion.
more common than violent crimes
Crimes where the offender is the only victim. Examples: prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use
crime committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions. Examples: fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, identity theft, bribing a public official
crimes committed by organized crime syndicates = professional criminals that control some vice or business and use threat of violence. Examples: mafia, drug cartel, loansharks, drug traffickers
a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
4 components of criminal justice system
- Juvenile Justice System
The police officer's power to decide who is arrested.
Factors that decide an arrest (police discretion)
Seriousness of the crime
Wishes of the victim
The practice of assuming nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit crimes than white Americans.
Role of Court in Criminal Justice System
Decide guilt or innocence, assign punishment if guilty
Process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence.
Corrections in Criminal Justice System
Sanctions used to punish criminals, such as imprisonment, parole, probation, and community service
4 functions of punishment
Retribution, Deterrence, Rehabilitation, Social Protection
Punishing the criminal is an act of revenge for the victim & society
Corrections are intended to discourage future crimes
In the 1800s, prisons emerged as places to reform (fix) the criminal so they can return to society as law-abiding citizens
By limiting the freedom of offenders, society prevents them from committing additional crimes
Repeating criminal behavior. Used to measure the effectiveness of corrections
Identify the reasons why juveniles are tried separately (rather than in the adult system)
Your age, confidentiality
Guaranteed the same rights as an adult
A crime that involves someone pretending to be another person in order to steal money or obtain benefits