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1,233 terms

BTO1

Vocabulary for intermediate business class
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360 Degree Appraisal
Process of using multiple sources of appraisal to gain a comprehensive perspective on one's performance.
80/20 Principle
Generally accepted rule that 80 percent of a product's revenues come from 20 percent of its total customers.
9/11 Generation
People in their formative years at the time of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
Accelerated Depreciation Method
Method that produces larger depreciation charges in the early years of an asset's life and smaller charges in its later years.
Accepted Check
A check that the drawee bank has signed. This signature is a promise that the bank will pay the check out of its own funds.
Accessory Equipment
Capital items such as desktop computers and printers that typically cost less and last for shorter periods than installations.
Accommodation
A style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about one's own interests.
Accommodation Party
Someone who does not benefit from an instrument but agrees to guarantee its payment.
Account
Record within an accounting system in which increases and decreases in a specific asset, liability, equity, revenue, or expense are entered and stored.
Account Balance
Difference in an account between total debits and total credits (including the beginning balance).
Account Form Balance Sheet
Balance sheet that lists assets on the left side and liabilities and equity on the right.
Accounting
Information and measurement system that identifies, records, and communicates relevant information about a company's business activities.
Accounting Cycle
Recurring steps performed each accounting period, starting with analyzing transactions and continuing through the post-closing trial balance (or reversing entries).
Accounting Equation
Equality involving a company's assets, liabilities, and equity. Assets = Liabilities + Equity Also called Balance Sheet Equation.
Accounting Information System
People, records, and methods that collect and process data from transactions and events, organize them in useful forms, and communicate results to decision makers.
Accounting Period
Length of time covered by financial statements. Also called Reporting Period.
Accounting Rate of Return
Rate used to evaluate the acceptability of an investment; equals the after-tax periodic income from a project divided by the average investment in the asset. Also called Rate of Return on Average Investment.
Accounts Payable
Liability created by buying goods or services on credit; backed by the buyer's general credit standing.
Accounts Payable Ledger
Subsidiary ledger listing individual creditor (supplier) accounts.
Accounts Receivable
Amounts due from customers for credit sales; backed by the customer's general credit standing.
Accounts Receivable Ledger
Subsidiary ledger listing individual customer accounts.
Accounts Receivable Turnover
Measure of both the quality and liquidity of accounts receivable; indicates how often receivables are received and collected during the period; computed by dividing net sales by average accounts receivable.
Accrual Basis Accounting
Accounting system that recognizes revenues when earned and expenses when incurred; the basis for GAAP.
Accrued Expenses
Costs incurred in a period, that are both unpaid and unrecorded; adjusting entries for recording accrued expenses involve increasing expenses and increasing liabilities.
Accrued Revenues
Revenues earned in a period that are both unrecorded and not yet received in cash (or other assets); adjusting entries for recording accrued revenues involve increasing assets and increasing revenues.
Accumulated Depreciation
Cumulative sum of all depreciation expense recorded for an asset.
Acquisition
One firm buying another.
Activity-Based Budgeting (ABB)
Budget system based on expected activities.
Ad Hoc Committee
A committee established to handle a specific situation and that dissolves after the task is accomplished.
Adjudicate
To hold a formal hearing in a disputed matter and issue an official decision.
Adjusted Trial Balance
List of accounts and balances prepared after adjustments are recorded and posted.
Adjusting Entry
Journal entry at the end of an accounting period to bring an asset or liability account to its proper amount and update the related expense or revenue account.
Administered Marketing System
VMS that achieves channel coordination when a dominant channel member exercises its power.
Administrative Law
Concerns all agencies, boards, commissions, and other entities created by a federal or state legislature and charged with investigating, regulating, and adjudicating a particular industry or issue.
Adoption Process
Stages that consumers go through in learning about a new product, trying it, and deciding whether to purchase it again.
Advantages of Teamwork
Increased competitive advantage, increased productivity, greater creativity and more numerous alternatives for problem solving.
Adverse Impact
When a seemingly neutral employment practice has a disproportionately negative effect on a protected group.
Advertising
Paid, non-personal communication through various media about a business firm, not-for-profit organization, product, or idea by a sponsor identified in a message that is intended to inform or persuade members of a particular audience.
Affective Conflict
Emotional disagreement directed toward other people.
Affirm
A decision by an appellate court to uphold the judgment of a lower court.
Affirmative Action
Special efforts to recruit and hire qualified members of groups that have been discriminated against in the past.
Agency Problem
The possibility of conflict of interest between stockholders and management of a firm.
Aging of Accounts Receivable
Process of classifying accounts receivable by how long they are past due for purposes of estimating uncollectible accounts.
AIDA Concept
Steps through which an individual reaches a purchase decision: Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action.
AIO Statements
Items on lifestyle surveys that describe various activities, interest, and opinions of respondents.
Alderfer's ERG Theory
A human needs theory developed by Alderfer postulating that people have three basic sets of needs which can operate simultaneously.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Contra asset account with a balance approximating uncollectible accounts receivable. Also called Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts.
Allowance Method
Procedure that (a) estimates and matches bad debts expense with its sales for the period and/or (b) reports accounts receivable at estimated realizable value.
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Any method of resolving a legal conflict other than litigation, such as: negotiation, arbitration, mediation, mini-trials, and summary jury trials.
Ambush Marketing
Attempt by a firm that is not an official sponsor of an event or activity to link itself to the event or activity.
Amendment
Any addition to a legal document. The constitutional amendments, the first ten of which are known collectively as the Bill of Rights, secure numerous liberties and protections directly for the people.
Amortization
Process of allocating the cost of an intangible asset to expense over its estimated useful life.
Annual Financial Statements
Financial Statements covering a one-year period; often based on a calendar year, but any consecutive 12-month (or 52-week) period is acceptable.
Annuity
Series of equal payments at equal intervals.
Answer
The pleading, filed by the defendant in court and served on the plaintiff, which responds to each allegation in the plaintiff's complaint.
Antitrust
Laws designed to prevent restraints on trade such as business monopolies.
Appellant
The party who appeals a lower court decision to a higher court.
Appellate Court
Any court in a state or federal system that reviews cases that have already been tried.
Appellee
The party opposing an appeal from a lower court to a higher court.
Approach
Salesperson's initial contact with a prospective customer.
Arbitration
The use of a neutral third party to resolve a labor dispute.
Assessment Center
A managerial performance test in which candidates participate in a variety of exercises and situations.
Assets
Resources a business owns or controls that are expected to provide current and future benefits to the business.
Assignee
The party who receives an assignment of contract rights from a party to the contract.
Assignment
The act by which a party transfers contract rights to a third person.
Assignor
The party who assigns contract rights to a third person.
Attachment
A court order seizing property of a party to a civil action, so that there will be sufficient assets available to pay the judgment.
Authentic Leadership
A style in which the leader is true to himself or herself while leading.
Autocratic Leadership
Leadership style where others are simply told what to do. "My way or the highway"
Autonomous Work Groups
Groups that control decisions about and execution of a complete range of tasks.
Average Tax Rate
Total taxes paid divided by total taxable income.
Avoidable Expense
Expense (or cost) that is relevant for decision making; expense that is not incurred if a department, product, or service is eliminated.
Avoidance
A reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing the disagreement.
Baby Boomers
People born between 1946 and 1965.
Backward Integration
Process through which a manufacturer attempts to gain greater control over inputs in its production process, such as raw materials.
Bad Debts
Accounts of customers who do not pay what they have promised to pay; an expense of selling on credit. Also called Uncollectible Accounts.
Balance Column Account
Account with debit and credit columns for recording entries and another column for showing the balance of the account after each entry.
Balance Sheet
Financial Statement that lists types and dollar amounts of assets, liabilities, and equity at a specific date.
Balance Sheet Equation
Equality involving a company's assets, liabilities, and equity. Assets = Liabilities + Equity Also called Accounting Equation.
Bank Reconciliation
Report that explains the difference between the book (company) balance of cash and the cash balance reported on the bank statement.
Bank Statement
Bank report on the depositor's beginning and ending cash balances, and a listing of its changes, for a period.
Barriers to Entry
Conditions that prevent new companies from entering an industry.
Batch Processing
Accumulating source documents for a period of time and then processing them all at once such as once a day, week, or month.
Bearer Bonds
Bonds made payable to whoever holds them (the bearer). Also called Unregistered Bonds.
Behavioral Approach
A leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do - that is, what behaviors they exhibit.
Benchmarking
Practice of comparing and analyzing a company financial performance or position with other companies or standards.
Beta Coefficient
The amount of systematic risk present in a particular risky asset relative to that in an average risky asset.
Betterments
Expenditures to make a plant asset more efficient or productive. Also called Improvements.
Bill
A proposed statute that has been submitted for consideration to Congress or a state legislature.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Bond
Written promise to pay the bond's par (or face) value and interest at a stated contract rate; often issued in denominations of $1,000.
Bond Certificate
Document containing bond specifics such as issuer's name, bond par value, contract interest rate, and maturity date.
Bond Indenture
Contract between the bond issuer and the bondholders; identifies the parties' rights and obligations.
Bonus Pack
Specially packaged item that gives the purchaser a larger quantity at the regular price.
Bookkeeping
Part of accounting that involves recording transactions and events, either manually or electronically. Also called Recordkeeping.
Bottom Line
Business jargon referring to the overall profitability of an organization.
Boundaryless Organization
Organization in which there are no barriers to information flow.
Bounded Rationality
A less-than-perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex and complete information is unavailable.
Brainstorming
Generating ideas without concern for their feasibility. A process in which group members generate as many ideas about a problem as they can; criticism is withheld until all ideas have been proposed.
Brand
Name, term, sign, symbol, design, or some combination that identifies the products of one firm while differentiating them from the competition's.
Brand Equity
Added value that a respected, well-known brand name gives to a product in the marketplace.
Brand Extension
Strategy of attaching a popular brand name to a new product in an unrelated product category.
Brand Insistence
Consumer refusal of alternatives and extensive search for desired merchandise.
Brand Licensing
Firm's authorization of other companies to use its brand names.
Brand Manager
Marketer within an organization who is responsible for a single brand.
Brand Mark
Symbol or pictorial design that distinguishes a product.
Brand Name
Part of a brand consisting of words or letters that form a name that identifies and distinguishes a firm's offerings from those of its competitors.
Brand Preference
Consumer reliance on previous experiences with a product to choose that product again.
Brand Recognition
Consumer awareness and identification of a brand.
Break-even Time (BET)
Time-based measurement used to evaluate the acceptability of an investment; equals the time expected to pass before the present value of the net cash flows from an investment equals its initial cost.
Bridge Leaders
A leader who bridges conflicting value systems or different cultures.
Brief
The written legal argument that an attorney files with an appeal court.
Broadband Technology
Extremely high-speed, always-on internet connection.
Brokering
One who acts as an agent for another in return for a fee or a commission.
Budget
Formal statement of future plans, usually expressed in monetary terms.
Budget Report
Report comparing actual results to planned objectives; sometimes used as a progress report.
Budgetary Control
Management use of budgets to monitor and control company operations.
Budgeted Balance Sheet
Accounting report that presents predicted amounts of the company's assets, liabilities, and equity balances as of the end of the budget period.
Budgeted Income Statement
Accounting report that presents predicted amounts of the company's revenues and expenses for the budget period.
Budgeting
Process of planning future business actions and expressing them as formal plans.
Buffering
Creating supplies of excess resources in case of unpredictable needs.
Burden of Proof
The allocation of which party must prove its case. In a civil case, the plaintiff has the burden of proof to persuade the factfinder of every element of her case. In a criminal case, the government has the burden of proof.
Bureaucratic Style
A management style characterized by the manager's reliance on rules, regulations, policies, and procedures to direct subordinates.
Business
One or more individuals selling products and/or services for profit
Business Cycle
Pattern of stages in the level of economic activity: Prosperity, Recession, Depression, and Recovery.
Business Entity Principle
Principle that requires a business to be accounted for separately from its owner(s) and from any other entity.
Business Ethics
The moral principles and standards that guide behavior in the world of business.
Business Plan
Formal document that outlines a company's objectives, how they will be met, how the business will obtain financing, and how much money the company expects to earn.
Business Products
Goods and services purchased for use either directly or indirectly in the production of other goods and services for resale.
Business Segment
Part of a company that can be separately identified by the products or services that it provides or by the geographic markets that it serves. Also called Segment.
Business Services
Intangible products that firms buy to facilitate their production and operating processes.
Business Strategy
The major actions by which a business competes in a particular industry or market.
Business-to-Business (B2B) Marketing
Organizational sales and purchases of goods and services to support production of other products, to facilitate daily company operations, or for resale.
Business-to-Business (B2B) Product
Product that contributes directly or indirectly to the output of other products for resale; also called industrial or organizational product.
Buyer Partnership
Relationship in which a firm purchases goods or services from one or more providers.
Buyer's Market
Market in which there are more goods and services than people willing to buy them.
Buying Center
Participants in an organizational buying action.
Buzz Marketing
Marketing that gathers volunteers to try products and then relies on them to talk about their experiences with their friends and colleagues.
Cafeteria Benefit Program
An employee benefit program in which employees choose from a menu of options to create a benefit package tailored to their needs.
Callable Bonds
Bonds that give the issuer the option to retire them at a stated amount prior to maturity.
Canceled Checks
Checks that the bank has paid and deducted from the depositor's account.
Cannibalization
Loss of sales of an existing product due to competition from a new product in the same line.
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
The equation of the SML showing the relationship between expected return and beta.
Capital Budgeting
Process of analyzing alternative investments and deciding which assets to acquire or sell.
Capital Expenditures
Additional costs of plan assets that provide material benefits extending beyond the current period. Also called Balance Sheet Expenditures.
Capital Expenditures Budget
Plan that lists dollar amounts to be both received from disposal of plant assets and spent to purchase plant assets.
Capital Leases
Long-term leases in which the lessor transfers substantially all risk and rewards of ownership to the lessee.
Capital Structure
The mixture of debt and equity maintained by a firm.
Capitalize
Record the cost as part of a permanent account and allocate it over later periods.
Captive Brand
National brands that are sold exclusively by a retail chain.
Cash
Includes currency, coins, and amounts on deposit in bank checking or savings accounts.
Cash Basis Accounting
Accounting system that recognizes revenues when cash is received and records expenses when cash is paid.
Cash Budget
Plan that shows expected cash inflows and outflows during the budget period, including receipts from loans needed to maintain a minimum cash balance and repayments of such loans.
Cash Disbursements Journal
Special journal normally used to record all payments of cash. Also called Cash Payments Journal.
Cash Equivalents
Short-term, investment assets that are readily convertible to a known cash amount or sufficiently close to their maturity date (usually within 90 days) so that market value is not sensitive to interest rate changes.
Cash Flow From Assets
The total of cash flow to creditors and cash flow to stockholders, consisting of the following: operating cash flow, capital spending, and change in net working capital.
Cash Flow on Total Assets
Ratio of operating cash flows to average total assets; not sensitive to income recognition and measurement; partly reflects earnings quality.
Cash Flow to Creditors
A firm's interest payments to creditors less net new borrowings.
Cash Flow to Stockholders
Dividends paid out by a firm less net new equity raised.
Cash Over and Short
Income statement account used to record cash overages and cash shortages arising from errors in cash receipts or payments.
Cash Receipts Journal
Special journal normally used to record all receipts of cash.
Category
Key business unit within diversified firms; also called a strategic business unit (SBU).
Category Advisor (Category Captain)
Trade industry vendor who develops a comprehensive procurement plan for a retail buyer.
Category Management
Product management system in which a category manager - with profit and loss responsibility - oversees a product line.
Cause Marketing
Identification and marketing of a social issue, cause, or idea to selected target markets.
Caux Principles
Ethical principles established by international executives based in Caux, Switzerland in collaboration with business leaders from Japan, Europe, and the United States.
Central American Free Trade Agreement-DR (CAFTA-DR)
Trade agreement among the United States, Central American nations, and the Dominican Republic.
Certainty
The state that exists when decision makers have accurate and comprehensive information.
Certified Check
A check that the drawee bank has signed. This signature is a promise that the bank will pay the check out of its own funds.
Challenge for Cause
An attorney's request, during voir dire, to excuse a prospective juror because of apparent bias.
Change in Accounting Estimate
Change in an accounting estimate that results from new information, subsequent developments, or improved judgment impacts current and future periods.
Channel
Medium through which a message is delivered.
Channel Captain
Dominant and controlling member of a marketing channel.
Charismatic Leader
A person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his or her beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers.
Chart of Accounts
List of accounts used by a company; includes an identification number for each account.
Check
Document signed by the depositor instructing the bank to pay a specified amount to a designated recipient.
Check Register
Another name for a cash disbursements journal when the journal has a column for check numbers.
Civil Law
The large body of law concerning the rights and duties between parties. It is distinguished from criminal law, which concerns behavior outlawed by a government.
Class Action
A method of litigation a civil lawsuit in which one or more plaintiffs (or occasionally defendants) seek to represent an entire group of people with similar claims against a common opponent.
Classified Balance Sheet
Balance sheet that presents assets and liabilities in relevant subgroups, including current and non-current classifications.
Close Corporation
A corporation with a small number of shareholders. Its stock is not publicly traded.
Closed Sales Territory
Exclusive geographic selling region of a distributor.
Closing
Stage of the personal selling process in which the salesperson asks the customer to make a purchase decision.
Closing Entries
Entries recorded at the end of each accounting period to transfer end-of-period balances in revenue, gain, expense, loss, and withdrawal (dividend for a corporation) accounts to the capital account (to retained earnings for a corporation).
Closing Process
Necessary steps to prepare the accounts for recording the transactions of the next period.
Coaching
Dialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve his or her full potential on the job.
Coalitional Model
Model of organizational decision making in which groups with differing preferences use power and negotiations to influence decisions.
Code of Ethics
A written system of standards for ethical conduct.
Cognitive Conflict
Issue-based differences in perspectives or judgments.
Cohesiveness
The degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and members influence one another.
Cohort Effect
Tendency of members of a generation to be influenced and bound together by events occurring during their key formative years - roughly age 17 to 22.
Cold Calling
Contacting a prospect without a prior appointment.
Collaboration
A style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness in order to maximize both parties' satisfaction.
Collective Bargaining
The process of negotiating a union agreement that covers wages, hours, and working conditions.
Collective Bargaining Unit
The precisely defined group of employees who are represented by a particular union.
Columnar Journal
Journal with more than one column.
Commerce Clause
One of the powers granted by Article I, §8 of the Constitution, it gives Congress exclusive power to regulate international commerce and concurrent power with the states to regulate domestic commerce.
Commercial Market
Individuals and firms that acquire products to support, directly or indirectly, production of other goods and services.
Commercial Speech
Communication, such as television advertisements, that has the dominant theme proposing a commercial transaction.
Commission
Incentive compensation directly related to the sales or profits achieved by a salesperson.
Common Carriers
Businesses that provide transportation services as for-hire carriers to the general public.
Common Law
Judge-made law, that is, the body of all decisions made by appellate courts over the years.
Common Size Financial Statement
Statement that expresses each amount as a percent of a base amount. In the balance sheet, total assets is usually the base and is expressed as 100%. In the income statement, net sales is usually the base.
Common Stock
Corporation's basic ownership share. Also called Capital Stock.
Common-Base Year Statement
A standardized financial statement presenting all items relative to a certain base-year amount.
Common-Size Statement
A standardized financial statement presenting all items in percentage terms. Balance sheet items are shown as a percentage of assets and income statement items as a percentage of sales.
Communication
The transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols.
Comparable Worth
Principle of equal pay for different jobs of equal worth.
Comparative Financial Statement
Statement with data for two or more successive periods placed in side-by-side columns, often with changes shown in dollar amounts and percents.
Compatibility Principle
Information system principle that requires an accounting system to conform with a company's activities, personnel, and structure.
Competing
A style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one's own goals, and little or no concern for the other person's goals.
Competitive Environment
Interactive process that occurs in the marketplace among marketers of directly competitive products, marketers of products that can be substituted for one another, and marketers competing for the consumer's purchasing power.
Competitive Intelligence
Information that helps managers determine how to compete better.
Competitive Strategy
Methods through which a firm deals with its competitive environment.
Complaint
A pleading, filed by the plaintiff, providing a short statement of the claim.
Compliance-Based Ethics Programs
Company mechanisms typically designed by corporate counsel to prevent, detect, and punish legal violations.
Compound Interest
Interest earned on both the initial principal and the interest reinvested from prior periods.
Compound Journal Entry
Journal entry that affects at least three accounts.
Compounding
The process of accumulating interest on an investment over time to earn more interest.
Compromise
A style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties' concerns.
Computer Hardware
Physical equipment in a computerized accounting information system.
Computer Network
Linkage giving different users and different computer users access to common databases and programs.
Computer Software
Programs that direct operations of computer hardware.
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to sequence and optimize a number of production processes.
Concentrated Marketing
Focusing marketing efforts on satisfying a single market segment. Also called Niche Marketing.
Concentration
A strategy employed for an organization that operates a single business and competes in a single industry.
Concentric Diversification
A strategy used to add new businesses that produce related products or are involved in related markets and activities.
Concept Testing
Method for subjecting a product idea to additional study before actual development by involving consumers through focus groups, surveys, in-store polling, and the like.
Conceptual and Decision Skills
Skills pertaining to the ability to identify and resolve problems for the benefit of the organization and its members.
Concerted Action
Tactics, such as a strike, used by a union to gain a bargaining advantage.
Conflict
Opposing pressures from different sources. Two levels of conflict are psychological conflict and conflict that arises between individuals or groups.
Conglomerate Diversification
A strategy used to add new businesses that produce unrelated products or are involved in unrelated markets and activities.
Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA)
Urban area that includes two or more PMSAs.
Constitution
The supreme law of a political entity. The United States Constitution is the highest law in the country.
Consultative Selling
Meeting customer needs by listening to them, understanding their problems, paying attention to details, and following through after the sale.
Consumer (B2C) Product
Product destined for use by ultimate consumers.
Consumer Innovator
People who purchase new products almost as soon as the products reach the market.
Consumer Orientation
Business philosophy incorporating the marketing concept that emphasizes first determining unmet consumer needs and then designing a system for satisfying them.
Consumer Products
Products bought by ultimate consumers for personal use.
Consumer Rights
List of legitimate consumer expectations suggested by President Kennedy.
Consumerism
Social force within the environment that aids and protects the consumer by exerting legal, moral, and economic pressures on business and government.
Containerization
Process of combining several unitized loads into a single, well-protected load for shipment.
Contest
Sales promotion technique that requires entrants to complete a task such as solving a puzzle or answering questions on a quiz for the chance to win a prize.
Contingency Plans
Alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds.
Contingent Liability
Obligation to make a future payment if, and only if, an uncertain future event occurs.
Continuous Budgeting
Practice of preparing budgets for a selected number of future periods and revising those budgets as each period is completed.
Continuous Process
A process that is highly automated and has a continuous production flow.
Continuous Quality Improvement
A philosophy and attitude for analyzing capabilities and processes and improving them repeatedly to achieve the objective of customer satisfaction.
Contra Account
Account linked with another account and having an opposite normal balance; reported as a subtraction from the other account's balance.
Contract Carriers
For-hire transporters that do not offer their services to the general public.
Contract Rate
Interest rate specified in a bond indenture (or note); multiplied by the par value to determine the interest paid each period. Also called Coupon Rate, Stated Rate, or Nominal Rate.
Contractual Marketing System
VMS that coordinates channel activities through formal agreements among participants.
Control Principle
Information system principle that requires an accounting system to aid managers in controlling and monitoring business activities.
Controllable Variance
Combination of both overhead spending variances (variable and fixed) and the variable overhead efficiency variance.
Controlling
The management function of monitoring performance and making needed changes.
Controlling Account
General ledger account, the balance of which (after posting) equals the sum of the balances in its related subsidiary ledger.
Convenience Products
Goods and services that consumers want to purchase frequently, immediately, and with minimal effort.
Conversion Rate
Percentage of visitors to a Web site who make a purchase.
Convertible Bonds
Bonds that bondholders can exchange for a set number of the issuer's shares.
Cooperative Strategies
Strategies used by two or more organizations working together to manage the external environment.
Copyright
Right giving the owner the exclusive privilege to publish and sell musical, literary, or artistic work during the creator's life plus 70 years.
Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA)
Collective term for metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.
Core Competencies
The unique skills and/or knowledge an organization possesses that give it an edge over competitors.
Core Region
Region from which most major brands get 40 to 80 percent of their sales.
Corporate Marketing System
VMS in which a single owner operates the entire marketing channel.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Obligation toward society assumed by business.
Corporate Strategy
The set of businesses, markets, or industries in which an organization competes and the distribution of resources among those entities.
Corporation
Business that is a separate legal entity under state or federal laws with owners called shareholders or stockholders.
Cost
All normal and reasonable expenditures necessary to get a plant asset in place and ready for its intended use.
Cost Competitiveness
Keeping costs low in order to achieve profits and be able to offer prices that are attractive to consumers.
Cost of Capital
The minimum required return on a new investment.
Cost per Impression
Measurement technique that relates the cost of an ad to every thousand people who view it.
Cost per Response
(Also called click-throughs) Direct marketing technique that relates the cost of an ad to the number of people who click it.
Cost Principle
Accounting principle that requires financial statement information to be based on actual costs incurred in business transactions.
Cost Variance
Difference between the actual incurred cost and the standard cost.
Cost-benefit Principle
Information system principle that requires the benefits from an activity in an accounting system to outweigh the costs of that activity.
Counter-claim
A claim made by the defendant against the plaintiff.
Countertrade
Form of exporting whereby goods and services are bartered rather than sold for cash.
Coupon
Sales promotion technique that offers a discount on the purchase price of goods or services.
Coupon Bonds
Bonds with interest coupons attached to their certificates; bondholders detach coupons when they mature and present them to a bank or broker for collection.
Court of Chancery
In medieval England, the court originally operated by the Chancellor.
Creative Selling
Personal selling that involves situations in which a considerable degree of analytical decision making on the buyer's part results in the need for skillful proposals of solutions for the customer's needs.
Creativity
Human activity that produces original ideas or knowledge, frequently by testing combinations of ideas or data to produce unique results.
Credit
Recorded on the right side; an entry that decreases asset and expense accounts, and increases liability, equity, and revenue accounts. Abbreviated: Cr
Creditor Beneficiary
When one party to a contract intends to benefit a third party to whom he owes a debt, that third party is referred to as a creditor beneficiary.
Creditors
Individuals or organizations entitled to receive payments.
Criminal Law
Rules that permit a government to punish certain behavior by fine or imprisonment.
Critical Thinking
Determining the authenticity, accuracy, and worth of information, knowledge, claims, and arguments.
Cross-Examination
During a hearing, for a lawyer to question an opposing witness.
Cross-Selling
Selling multiple, often unrelated goods and services to the same customer based on knowledge of that customer's needs.
Cultural Diversity
The co-existence of two or more cultural groups within an organization. The vast array of differences created by cultural phenomena such as history, economic conditions, personality characteristics, language, norms, and more.
Cultural Norms
The way a society solves its problems. Different cultures have developed their own unique ways of solving problems. A key value or belief that the culture in question holds dear.
Culture Shock
The disorientation and stress associated with being in a foreign environment.
Current Assets
Cash or other assets expected to be sold, collected, or used within one year or the company's operating cycle, whichever is longer.
Current Liability
Obligation due to be paid or settled within one year or the company's operating cycle, whichever is longer.
Current Ratio
Ratio used to evaluate a company's ability to pay its short-term obligations, calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
A multifaceted process focusing on creating two-way exchanges with customers to foster intimate knowledge of their needs, wants, and buying patterns.
Customer Relationship Manager (CRM)
Combination of strategies and tools that drives relationship programs, reorienting the entire organization to a concentrated focus on satisfying customers.
Customer Service
The speed and dependability with which an organization can deliver what customers want.
Customer-Based Segmentation
Dividing a business-to-business market into homogeneous groups based on buyer's product specifications.
Custom-Made Solutions
New, creative solutions designed specifically for the problem.
Date of Declaration
Date the directors vote to pay a dividend.
Date of Payment
Date the corporation makes the dividend payment.
Days' Sales Uncollected
Measure of the liquidity of receivables computed by dividing the current balances of receivables by the annual credit (or net) sales and then multiplying by 365. Also called Days' Sales in Receivables.
De Novo
The power of an appellate court or appellate agency to make a new decision in a matter under appeal, entirely ignoring the findings and conclusions of the lower court or agency official.
Debit
Recorded on the left side; an entry that increases asset and expense accounts, and decreases liability, equity, and revenue accounts. Abbreviated: Dr
Debt Ratio
Ratio of total liabilities to total assets; used to reflect risk associated with a company's debts.
Debtors
Individuals or organizations that owe money.
Decider
Person who chooses a good or service, although another person may have the formal authority to complete the sale.
Decline Stage
Final stage of the product life cycle, in which a decline in total industry sales occurs.
Declining-Balance Method
Method that determines depreciation charge for the period by multiplying a depreciation rate (often twice the straight-line rate) by the asset's beginning-period book value.
Decoding
Receiver's interpretation of a message.
Default Judgment
Court order awarding one party everything it requested because the opposing party failed to respond in time.
Defenders
Companies that stay within a stable product domain as a strategic maneuver.
Delegation
The act by which a party to a contract transfers duties to a third person who is not a party to the contract.
Demarketing
Process of reducing consumer demand for a good or service to a level that the firm can supply.
Democratic Leadership
A form of leadership in which the leader solicits input from subordinates.
Democratic Style
A management or leadership style characterized by a sharing of decision-making authority with subordinates by the leader.
Demographic Segmentation
Division of an overall market into homogeneous groups based on variables such as gender, age, income, occupation, education, sexual orientation, household size, and stage in the family life cycle. Also called Socioeconomic Segmentation.
Demographics
Measures of various characteristics of the people who comprise groups or other social units.
Demonstration
Stage in the personal selling process in which the customer has the opportunity to try out or otherwise see how a good or service works before purchase.
Depletion
Process of allocating the cost of natural resources to periods when they are consumed.
Deponent
The person being questioned in a deposition.
Deposit Ticket
Lists items such as currency, coins, and checks deposited and their corresponding dollar amounts.
Deposition
A form of discovery in which a party's attorney has the right to ask oral questions of the other party or of a witness. Answers are given under oath.
Deposits in Transit
Deposits recorded by the company but not yet by its bank.
Depreciable Cost
Cost of a plant asset less its salvage value.
Depreciation
Expense created by allocating the cost of plant and equipment to periods in which they are used; represents the expense of using the asset.
Deregulation Movement
Opening of markets to previously subject to government control.
Derived Demand
Demand for a resource that results from demand for the goods and services that are produced by that resource.
Development
Teaching managers and professional employees broad skills needed for their present and future jobs.
Devil's Advocate
A person who has the job of criticizing ideas to ensure that their downsides are fully explored.
Dialectic
A structured debate comparing two conflicting courses of action.
Differentiated Marketing
Strategy that focuses on producing several products and pricing, promoting, and distributing them with different marketing mixes designed to satisfy smaller segments.
Differentiation Strategy
A strategy an organization uses to build competitive advantage by being unique in its industry or market segment along one or more dimensions.
Diffusion Process
Process by which new goods or services are accepted in the marketplace.
Direct Channel
Marketing channel that moves goods directly from a producer to the business purchaser or ultimate user.
Direct Examination
During a hearing, for a lawyer to question his own witness.
Direct Mail
Communications in the form of sales letters, postcards, brochures, catalogs, and the like conveying messages directly from the marketer to the customer.
Direct Marketing
Direct communications, other than personal sales contacts, between buyer and seller, designed to generate sales, information requests, or store Web site visits.
Direct Method
Presentation of net cash from operating activities on the statement of cash flows that lists major operating cash receipts less major operating cash payments.
Direct Sales Results Test
Method for measuring promotional effectiveness based on the specific impact on sales revenues for each dollar of promotional spending.
Direct Selling
Strategy designed to establish direct sales contact between producer and final user.
Direct Write-off Method
Method that records the loss from an uncollectible account receivable at the time it is determined to be uncollectible; No attempt is made to estimate bad debts.
Directed Verdict
The decision by a court to instruct a jury that it must find in favor of a particular party because, in the judge's opinion, no reasonable person could disagree on the outcome.
Disadvantages of Teamwork
Some individuals are better and/or faster, process losses from team development time, many companies don't support the best team environment, social loafing.
Discount
Calculate the present value of some future amount.
Discount on Bonds Payable
Difference between a bond's par value and its lower issue price or carrying value; occurs when the contract rate is less than the market rate.
Discount Rate
The rate used to calculate the present value of future cash flows.
Discount Rate
Expected rate of return on investments. Also called Cost of Capital, Hurdle Rate, or Required Rate of Return.
Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Valuation
Calculating the present value of a future cash flow to determine its value today.
Discounting the Future
A bias weighting short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits.
Discounts Lost
Expenses resulting from failures to take advantage of cash discounts on purchases.
Discovery
A stage in litigation, after all pleadings have been served, in which each party seeks as much relevant information as possible about the opposing party's case.
Discretionary Income
Money available to spend after buying necessities such as food, clothing, and housing.
Dishonor
An obligor refuses to pay an instrument that is due.
Dismiss
To terminate a lawsuit, often on procedural grounds, without reaching the merits of the case.
Distribution
Movement of goods and services from producers to customers.
Distribution Strategy
Planning that ensures that consumers find a firm's products in the proper quantities at the right times and places.
Diversification
A firm's investment in a different product, business, or geographic area.
Diversity
Committing to establish an environment where the full potential of all employees can be tapped by paying attention to, and taking into account their differences in work background, experience, age, gender, race, ethnic origin, etc.
Diversity Jurisdiction
One of the two main types of civil cases that a United States district court has the power to hear. It involves a lawsuit between citizens of different states, in which at least one party makes a claim for more than $75,000.
Diversity Training
Programs that focus on identifying and reducing hidden biases against people with differences and developing the skills needed to manage a diversified workforce.
Divestiture
A firm selling one or more businesses.
Domain Selection
Entering a new market or industry with an existing expertise.
Donee Beneficiary
When one party to a contract intends to make a gift to a third party, that third party is referred to as a done beneficiary.
Double Taxation
Corporate income is taxed and then its later distribution through dividends is taxed again for shareholders.
Double-Declining Balance (DDB) Depreciation
Depreciation equals beginning book value multiplied by 2, times the straight-line rate.
Double-Entry Accounting
Accounting system in which each transaction affects at least two accounts and has at least one debit and one credit.
Downsizing
The planned elimination of positions or jobs.
Downstream Management
Controlling part of the supply chain that involves finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service.
Downward Communication
Information that flows from higher to lower levels in the organization's hierarchy.
Du Pont Identity
Popular expression breaking ROE into three parts: operating efficiency, asset use efficiency, and financial leverage.
Dual Distribution
Network that moves products to a firm's target market through more than one marketing channel.
Due Process Clause
Part of the Fifth Amendment, Procedural due process ensures that before depriving anyone of liberty or property, the government must go through procedures which ensure that the deprivation is fair. Substantive due process holds that certain rights, such as privacy, are so fundamental that the government may not eliminate them.
Dumping
Controversial practice of selling a product in a foreign market at a price lower than what it receives in the producer's domestic market.
Duty of Fair Representation
The union's obligation to act on behalf of all members impartially and in good faith.
Earnings
Amount earned after subtracting all expenses necessary for and matched with sales for a period. Also called Income or Profit.
Ecocentric Management
Its goal is the creation of sustainable economic development and improvement of quality of life worldwide for all organizational stakeholders.
Ecology
Relationship between organisms and their natural environment.
Economic Environment
Factors that influence consumer buying power and marketing strategies, including stage of the business cycle, inflation and deflation, unemployment, income, and resource availability.
Economic Responsibility
To produce goods and services that society wants at a price that perpetuates the business and satisfies its obligations to investors.
Economies of Scope
Economies in which materials and processes employed in one product can be used to make other, related products.
Effective Interest Method
Allocates interest expense over the bond life to yield a constant rate of interest; interest expense for a period is found by multiplying the balance of the liability at the beginning of the period by the bond market rate at issuance. Also called Interest Method.
Efficiency
Company's productivity in using its assets; usually measured relative to how much revenue a certain level of assets generates.
Efficiency Variance
Difference between the actual quantity of an input and the standard quantity of that input.
Egoism
An ethical system defining acceptable behavior as that which maximizes consequences for the individual.
Elasticity
Economic term - usually refers to the responsiveness in the quantity demanded of a commodity to changes in environment.
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
Use of electronic communication to transfer cash from one party to another.
Embargo
Complete ban on the import of specified products.
Emergency Goods and Services
Products bought in response to unexpected and urgent needs.
Eminent Domain
The power of the government to take private property for public use.
Emotional Intelligence
The skills of understanding yourself, managing yourself, and dealing effectively with others.
Employment-at-Will
The legal concept that an employee may be terminated for any reason.
Empowerment
The process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization.
Enabling Legislation
A statute authorizing the creation of a new administrative agency and specifying its powers and duties.
Encoding
Translating a message into understandable terms.
End-Use Application Segmentation
Segmenting a business-to-business market based on how industrial purchasers will use the product.
Engel's Laws
Three general statements about the impact of household income on consumer spending behavior: as household income increases, a smaller percentage of expenditures goes for food; the percentage spent on housing, household operations, and clothing remains constant; and the percentage spent on other items (such as recreation and education) increases.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Software
Programs that manage a company's vital operations, which range from order taking to manufacturing to accounting.
Entity
Organization that, for accounting purposes, is separate from other organizations and individuals.
Environmental Management
Attainment of organizational objectives by predicting and influencing the competitive, political-legal, economic, technologic, and social-cultural environments.
Environmental Scanning
Process of collecting information about the external marketing environment to identify and interpret potential trends.
Environmental Uncertainty
Lack of information needed to understand or predict the future.
Equal Protection Clause
Part of the Fourteenth Amendment, it generally requires the government to treat equally situated people the same.
Equity
Owner's claim on the assets of a business; equals the residual interest in an entity's assets after deducting liabilities. Also called Net Assets.
Equity
The broad powers of a court to fashion a remedy where justice demands it and no common law remedy exists. An injunction is an example of an equitable remedy.
Equity Ratio
Portion of total assets provided by equity, computed as total equity divided by total assets.
Equity Theory
A theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcome and inputs.
Error of Law
A mistake made by a trial judge that concerns a legal issue as opposed to a factual matter. Permitting too many leading questions is a legal error; choosing to believe one witness rather than another is a factual matter.
Ethical Climate
In an organization it refers to the processes by which decisions are evaluated and made on the basis of right and wrong.
Ethical Issue
Situation, problem, or opportunity in which an individual must choose among several actions that must be evaluated as morally right or wrong.
Ethical Leader
One who is both a moral person and a moral manager influencing others to behave ethically.
Ethical Responsibilities
Meeting other social expectations, not written as law.
Ethics
Codes of conduct by which actions are judged as right or wrong, fair or unfair, honest or dishonest.
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to judge others by the standards of one's group or culture, which are seen as superior.
European Union (EU)
Customs union that is moving in the direction of an economic union by adopting a common currency, removing trade restrictions, and permitting free flow of goods and workers throughout the member nations.
Event Marketing
Marketing of sporting, cultural, and charitable activities to selected target markets.
Events
Happenings that both affect an organization's financial position and can be reliably measured.
Exchange Control
Method used to regulate the privilege of international trade among importing organizations by controlling access to foreign currencies.
Exchange Functions
Buying and selling functions of marketing.
Exchange Process
Activity in which two or more parties give something of value to each other to satisfy perceived needs.
Exchange Rate
Price of one nation's currency in terms of another country's currency.
Exclusive Dealing Agreement
Arrangement between a manufacturer and a marketing intermediary that prohibits the intermediary from handling competing product lines.
Exclusive Distribution
Distribution of a product through a single wholesaler or retailer in a specific geographic region.
Executive Agency
An administrative agency within the executive branch of government.
Executive Order
An order by a president or governor, having the full force of law.
Exhaustion of Remedies
A principle of administrative law that no party may appeal an agency action to a court until she has utilized all available appeals within the agency itself.
Expanded Accounting Equation
Assets = Liabilities + Equity where Equity = [Owner Capital - Owner Withdrawals + Revenues - Expenses].
Expatriates
Parent-company nationals who are sent to work at a foreign subsidiary.
Expectancy
Employee's perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals.
Expectancy Theory
A theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome.
Expected Return
The return on a risky asset expected in the future.
Expenses
Outflows or using up of assets as part of operations of a business to generate sales.
Expert Power
The ability to influence related to some expertise, special skill, or knowledge. Expert power is a function of the judgment by the less-powerful person that the other person has knowledge that exceeds his own.
Expert Witness
A witness in court case who has special training or qualifications to discuss a specific issue, and who is generally permitted to state an opinion.
Exporting
Marketing domestically produced goods and services in foreign countries.
External Environment
All relevant forces outside a firm's boundaries, such as competitors, customers, the government, and the economy.
External Transactions
Exchanges of economic value between one entity and another entity.
External Users
Persons using accounting information who are not directly involved in running the organization.
Extinction
Withdrawing or failure to provide a reinforcing consequence.
Extraordinary Repairs
Major repairs that extend the useful life of a plant asset beyond prior expectations; treated as a capital expenditure.
Extrinsic Rewards
Rewards external to the job such as pay, promotion or fringe benefits.
Facilitating Functions
Functions that assist the marketer in performing the exchange and physical distribution functions.
Factfinder
The one responsible, during a trial, for deciding what occurred, that is, who did what to whom, when, how, and why. It is either the jury or, in a jury-waived case, the judge.
Failure Rate
The number of expatriate managers of an overseas operation who come home early.
Family Brand
Single brand name that identifies several related products.
Family Life Cycle
Process of family formation and dissolution.
Favorable Variance
Difference in actual revenues or expenses from the budgeted value that contributes to a higher income.
Federal Question Jurisdiction
One of the two main types of civil cases that a United States district court has the power to hear. It involves a federal statute or a constitutional provision.
Federalism
A form of national government in which power is shared between one central authority and numerous local authorities.
Feedback
Receiver's response to a message.
Field Selling
Sales presentations made at prospective customers' locations on a face-to-face basis.
Filtering
The process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information.
Final Consumer
Those who purchase products in their finished form.
Financial Accounting
Area of accounting mainly aimed at serving external users.
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
Independent group of full-time members responsible for setting accounting rules.
Financial Ratios
Relationships determined from a firm's financial information and used for comparison purposes.
Financial Reporting
Process of communicating information relevant to investors, creditors, and others in making investment, credit, and business decisions.
Financial Statement Analysis
Application of analytical tools to general-purpose financial statements and related data for making business decisions.
Financial Statements
Includes the balance sheet, income statement, statement of owner's equity, and statement of cash flows.
Financing Activities
Transactions with owners and creditors that include obtaining cash from issuing debt, repaying amounts borrowed, and obtaining cash from or distributing cash to owners.
First Mover Strategy
Theory advocating that the company that is first to offer a product in a marketplace will be the long-term market winner.
Fiscal Year
Consecutive 12-month (or 52-week) period chosen as the organization's annual accounting period.
Fish Boning
A total quality technique that places the problem statement on a horizontal line, with key words on lines drawn at a 45 degree angle to the right, above and below it (so it resembles the backbone and ribs of a fish).
Fixed Budget
Planning budget based on a single predicted amount of volume; unsuitable for evaluations if the actual volume differs from predicted volume.
Fixed Budget Performance Report
Report that compares actual revenues and costs with fixed budgeted amounts and identifies the differences as favorable or unfavorable variances.
Fixed-Sum-Per-Unit Method
Method of promotional budgeting in which a predetermined amount is allocated to each sales or production unit.
Flexibility Principle
Information system principle that requires an accounting system be able to adapt to changes in the company, its operations, and needs of decision makers.
Flexible Benefit Programs
Benefit programs in which employees are given credits to spend on benefits that fit their unique needs.
Flexible Budget
Budget prepared (using actual volume) after a period is complete that helps managers evaluate past performance; uses fixed and variable costs in determining total costs.
Flexible Budget Performance Report
Report that compares actual revenues and costs with their variable budgeted amounts based on actual sales volume (or other level of activity) and identifies the differences as variances.
Flexible Factories
Manufacturing plants that have short production rounds, are organized around products, and use decentralized scheduling.
Flexible Processes
Methods for adapting the technical core to changes in the environment.
Follower Support
Followers must 1) know what to do, 2) know how to do it, 3) understand why they are doing it, 4) want to do it, 5) have the right resources, and 6) believe they have the proper leadership.
Follow-up
Postsale activities that often determine whether an individual who has made a recent purchase will become a repeat customer.
Forecasting
Method for predicting how variables will change the future.
Foreign Licensing
Agreement that grants foreign marketers the right to distribute a firm's merchandise or to use its trademark, patent, or process in a specified geographic area.
Formal Rulemaking
The process whereby an administrative agency notifies the public of a proposed new rule and then permits a formal hearing, with opportunity for evidence and cross-examination, before promulgating the final rule.
Forward Integration
Process through which a firm attempts to control downstream distribution.
Founding Fathers
The authors of the United States Constitution, who participated in the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787.
Framing Effects
A psychological bias influenced by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or presented.
Franchise
An arrangement in which the franchisee buys from a franchisers the right to establish a business using the franchiser's trade name and selling the franchiser's products. Typically the franchiser also trains the franchise in the proper operation of the business.
Franchises
Privileges granted by a company or government to sell a product or service under specified conditions.
Free Cash Flow
Another name for cash flow from assets.
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)
Proposed free-trade area stretching the length of the entire Western Hemisphere and designed to extend free trade benefits to additional nations in North, Central, and South America.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
A federal statute giving private citizens and corporations access to many of the documents possessed by an administrative agency.
Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation (FCN) Treaties
International agreements that deal with many aspects of commercial relations among nations.
Frontline Managers
Lower-level managers who supervise the operational activities of the organization.
Full-Disclosure Principle
Principle that prescribes financial statements (including notes) to report all relevant information about an entity's operations and financial condition.
Functional Authority
The right that a manager of a staff department has to make decisions and give orders that affect the way things are done in another department.
Functional Strategies
Strategies implemented by each functional area of the organization to support the organization's business strategy.
Fundamental Rights
In constitutional law, those rights that are so basic that any governmental interference with them is suspect and likely to be unconstitutional.
Future Value (FV)
The amount an investment is worth after one or more periods.
Garbage Can Model
Model of organizational decision making depicting a chaotic process and seemingly random decisions.
Gatekeeping
Controlling access to another person or the flow of information.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
International trade accord that has helped reduce world tariffs.
General and Administrative Expense Budget
Plan that shows predicted operating expenses not included in the selling expenses budget.
General Journal
All-purpose journal for recording the debits and credits of transactions and events.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
Rules that specify acceptable accounting practices.
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS)
Rules that specify acceptable auditing practices.
General-purpose Financial Statements
Statements published periodically for use by a variety of interested parties; includes the income statement, balance sheet, statement of owner's equity (or statement of retained earnings for a corporation), statement of cash flows, and notes to these statements.
Generic Products
Products characterized by plain labels, no advertising, and the absence of brand names.
Geographic Information Systems (GISs)
Software packages that assemble, store, manipulate, and display data by their location.
Geographic Segmentation
Division of an overall market into homogeneous groups based on their locations.
Glass Ceiling
An invisible barrier that makes it difficult for certain groups, such as minorities and women, to move beyond a certain level in the organizational hierarchy.
Global Model
An organization model consisting of a company's overseas subsidiaries and characterized by centralized decision making and tight control by the parent company over most aspects of worldwide operations. Typically adopted by organizations that base their global competitive strategy on low cost.
Global Sourcing
Purchasing goods and services from suppliers worldwide.
Globalization - Ethical Dilemmas
Companies have discovered that there is no single standard of ethical behavior applying to all business decisions in the international arena. Practices that are illegal in one country may be perfectly acceptable, even expected, in another.
Goal
A target or end that management desires to reach.
Goal Displacement
A condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses sight of its original goal and a new, less important goal emerges.
Goal Setting
The process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that an employee or group is responsible for accomplishing.
Goal-Setting Theory
A motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end.
Going-Concern Principle
Principle that requires financial statements to reflect the assumption that the business will continue operating.
Goods
Tangible products that customers can see, hear, smell, taste, or touch.
Goods-Services Continuum
Spectrum along which goods and services fall according to their attributes, from pure good to pure service.
Goodwill
Amount by which a company's (or a segment's) value exceeds the value of its individual assets less its liabilities.
Grapevine
Informal communication network.
Gray Goods
Products manufactured abroad under license from a U.S. firm and then sold in the U.S. market in competition with that firm's own domestic product.
Green Marketing
Production, promotion, and reclamation of environmentally sensitive products.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Sum of all goods and services produced by a nation in a year.
Group Maintenance Behaviors
Actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the group.
Group Norms
Standards shared by the members of a group.
Groupthink
A phenomenon that occurs in decision making when group members avoid disagreement as they strive for consensus. The deterioration of the mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment of the individual members of the group in the interest of group solidarity.
Growth Need Strength
The degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development.
Growth Stage
Second stage of the product life cycle, which begins when a firm starts to realize substantial profits from its investment in a product.
Guerrilla Marketing
Unconventional, innovative, and low-cost marketing techniques designed to get consumers' attention in unusual ways.
Habit
Can be a negative for group or individual decision making. Groups that always make decisions in the same way without considering new options may no longer be innovative.
Harmless Error
A ruling made by a trial court which an appeals court determines was legally wrong but not fatal to the decision.
Hierarchy
The various levels of managerial positions and the people chosen to staff an organization's positions of formal authority.
High-involvement Organization
A type of organization in which top management ensures that there is consensus about the direction
Home Shopping Channel
Television direct marketing in which a variety of products are offered and consumers can order them directly by phone or online.
Homeshoring
Hiring workers to do jobs from their homes.
Horizontal Analysis
Comparison of a company's financial condition and performance across time.
Horizontal Communication
Information shared among people on the same hierarchical level.
Host-country Nationals
Natives of the country where an overseas subsidiary is located.
Human Capital
The knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees that have economic value.
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Formal systems for the management of people within an organization.
Hurdle Rate
Minimum acceptable rate of return (set by management) for an investment.
Hybrid Rulemaking
A method of administrative agency procedure incorporating some elements of formal and some elements of informal rulemaking, typically involving a limited public hearing with restricted rights of testimony and cross-examination.
Hygiene Factors
Characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision, that can make people dissatisfied.
Illusion of Control
People's belief that they can influence events, even when they have no control over what will happen.
Impairment
Diminishment of an asset value.
Import Quotas
Trade restrictions that limit the number of units of certain goods that can enter a country for resale.
Importing
Purchasing foreign goods and services.
Imprest System
Method to account for petty cash; maintains a constant balance in the fund, which equals cash plus petty cash receipts.
Impulse Goods and Services
Products purchased on the spur of the moment.
In Camera
"In the judge's chambers," meaning the judge does something out of view of the jury and the public.
Inadequacy
Condition in which the capacity of plant assets is too small to meet the company's production demands.
Inbound Telemarketing
Sales method in which prospects call a toll-free number to obtain information, make reservations, and purchase goods and services.
Income
Amount earned after subtracting all expenses necessary for and matched with sales for a period. Also called Profit or Earnings.
Income Statement
Financial statement that subtracts expenses from revenues to yield a net income or loss over a specified period of time; also includes any gains or losses.
Income Summary
Temporary account used only in the closing process to which the balances of revenue and expense accounts (including any gains or losses) are transferred; its balance is transferred to the capital account.
Incremental Cost
Additional cost incurred only if a company pursues a specific course of action.
Incremental Model
Model of organizational decision making in which major solutions arise through a series of smaller decisions.
Indefinite Useful Life
Asset life that is not limited by legal, regulatory, contractual, competitive economic, or other factors.
Independent Agency
An administrative agency outside the executive branch of government, such as the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Independent Strategies
Strategies that an organization acting on its own uses to change some aspect of its current environment.
Indirect Evaluation
Method for measuring promotional effectiveness by concentrating on quantifiable indicators of effectiveness such as recall and readership.
Indirect Method
Presentation that reports net income and then adjusts it by adding and subtracting items to yield net cash from operating activities on the statement of cash flows.
Individual Brand
Single brand that uniquely identifies a product.
Induction
A program developed to introduce a new employee to his or her job, working environment, supervisor or peers. Also sometimes called orientation.
Inelastic Demand
Demand that, throughout an industry, will not change significantly due to a price change.
Inflation
Rising prices caused by some combination of excess consumer demand and increases in the costs of one or more factors of production.
Influencer
Typically, technical staff such as engineers who affect the buying decision by supplying information to guide evaluation of alternatives or by setting buying specifications.
Infomercial
Paid-30 minute or longer product commercial that resembles a regular television program.
Informal Rulemaking
The process whereby an administrative agency notifies the public of a proposed new rule and permits comment but is then free to promulgate the final rule without a public hearing.
Information Processor
Component of an accounting system that interprets, transforms, and summarizes information for use in analysis and reporting.
Information Storage
Component of an accounting system that keeps data in a form accessible to information processors.
Informing
A team strategy that entails making decisions with the team and then informing outsiders of its intentions.
Infrastructure
A nation's basic system of transportation networks, communications systems, and energy facilities.
Injunction
A court order that a person either do or stop doing something.
Innovation
A change in method or technology; a positive, useful departure from previous ways of doing things. The introduction of new goods and services.
Inpatriate
A foreign national brought in to work at the parent company.
Input Device
Means of capturing information from source documents that enables its transfer to information processors.
Inputs
Goods and services organizations take in and use to create products or services.
Inside Selling
Selling by phone, mail, and electronic commerce.
Installations
Business products such as factories, assembly lines, and large machinery that are major capital investments.
Installment Note
Liability requiring a series of periodic payments to the lender.
Instructions or Charge
The explanation given by a judge to a jury, outlining the jury's task in deciding a lawsuit and the underlying rules of law the jury should use in reaching its decision.
Instrumentality
The perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome.
Intangible Assets
Long-term assets (resources) used to produce or sell products or services; usually lack physical form and have uncertain benefits.
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
Coordination of all promotional activities to produce a unified, customer-focused promotional message.
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
Coordination of all promotional activities to produce a unified customer-focused promotional message.
Integrity-Based Ethics Programs
Company mechanisms designed to instill in people a personal responsibility for ethical behavior.
Intensive Distribution
Distribution of a product through all available channels.
Interactive Marketing
Buyer-seller communications in which the customer controls the amount and type of information received from a marketer through such channels as the Internet and virtual reality kiosks.
Interest
Charge for using money (or other assets) loaned from one entity to another.
Interest on Interest
Interest earned on the reinvestment of previous interest payments.
Interim Financial Statements
Financial statements covering periods of less than one year; usually based on one-, three-, or six-month periods.
Intermediate Consumer
A customer who purchases raw materials or wholesale products before selling them to final customers.
Intermodal Operations
Combination of transport modes such as rail and highway carriers (piggyback), air and highway carriers (birdyback), and water and air carriers (fishyback) to improve customer service and achieve cost advantages.
Internal Control System
All policies and procedures used to protect assets, ensure reliable accounting, promote efficient operations, and urge adherence to company policies.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Rate used to evaluate the acceptability of an investment; equals the rate that yields a net present value of zero for an investment.
Internal Transactions
Activities within an organization that can affect the accounting equation.
Internal Users
Persons using accounting information who are directly involved in managing the organization.
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
Group that identifies preferred accounting practices and encourages global acceptance; issues international Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).
International Model
An organization model that is composed of a company's overseas subsidiaries and characterized by greater control by the parent company over the research function and local product and marketing strategies than is the case in the multinational model.
Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
Technology that allows a two-way broadcast signal to be sent through a telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection.
Interpersonal and Communication Skills
People skills; the ability to lead, motivate, and communicate effectively with others.
Interpretive Rules
A formal statement by an administrative agency expressing its view of what existing statutes or regulations mean.
Interrogatory
A form of discovery in which one party sends to an opposing party written questions that must be answered under oath.
Intrinsic Rewards
Rewards that are part of the job itself. The responsibility, challenge, and feedback characteristics of the job are intrinsic rewards.
Introductory Stage
First stage of the product life cycle, in which a firm works to stimulate sales of a new market entry.
Investing Activities
Transactions that involve purchasing and selling of long-term assets, includes making and collecting notes receivable and investments in other than cash equivalents.
Invoice
Itemized record of goods prepared by the vendor that lists the customer's name, items sold, sales price, and terms of sale.
Invoice Approval
Document containing a checklist of steps necessary for approving an invoice for recording and payment. Also called Check Authorization.
ISO 9000
A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of producers and consumers.
Issue
All direct descendants such as children, grandchildren, and so on.
Job Analysis
A tool for determining what is done on a given job and what should be done on that job.
Job Enlargement
Increasing the number of tasks or the quantity of output required for a job.
Job Enrichment
Providing variety, deeper personal interest and involvement, greater autonomy and challenge, or increased responsibility.
Job Rotation
Changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom.
Joint Demand
Demand for a product that depends on the demand for another product used in combination with it.
Joint Venture
A partnership for a limited purpose.
Journal
Record in which transactions are entered before they are posted to ledger accounts. Also called Book of Original Entry.
Journalizing
Process of recording transactions in a journal.
Judgment non obstante verdicto (n.o.v.)
"Judgment notwithstanding the verdict." A trial judge overturns the verdict of the jury and enters a judgment in favor of the opposing party.
Judicial Activism
The willingness shown by certain courts (and not by others) to decide issues of public policy, such as constitutional questions (free speech, equal protection, etc.) and matters of contract fairness (primary estoppel, unconscionability, etc.).
Judicial Restraint
A court's preference to abstain from adjudicating major social issues and to leave such matters to legislatures.
Judicial Review
The power of the judicial system to examine, interpret, and even nullify actions taken by another branch of government.
Jurisdiction
The power of a court to hear a particular dispute, civil or criminal, and to make a binding decision.
Jurisprudence
The study of the purposes and philosophies of the law, as opposed to particular provisions of the law.
Just-in-Time (JIT)/Just-in-Time II (JIT II)
Inventory practices that seek to boost efficiency by cutting inventories to absolute minimum levels. With JIT II, suppliers' representatives work at the customer's facility.
Kohlberg's Model of Cognitive Moral Development
Classifies people based on their level of moral judgment.
Label
Branding component that carries an item's brand name or symbol, the name and address of the manufacturer or distributor, information about the product, and recommended uses.
Labor Relations
The system of relations between workers and management.
Laissez-faire
A leadership philosophy characterized by an absence of managerial decision making.
Land Improvements
Assets that increase the benefits of land, have a limited useful life, and are depreciated.
Large Batch
Technologies that produce goods and services in high volume.
Lateral Leadership
Style in which colleagues at the same hierarchical level are invited to collaborate and facilitate joint problem solving.
Law Merchant
The body of rules and customs developed by traders and businesspersons throughout Europe from roughly the fifteenth to the eighteenth century.
Law of Effect
A law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 stating that behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated.
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Highlights the importance of leader behaviors not just toward the group as a whole but toward individuals on a personal basis.
Leadership
The ability to get work done with and through others while winning their respect, confidence, loyalty, and willing cooperation.
Leading
The management function that involves the manager's efforts to stimulate high performance by employees.
Lean Manufacturing
An operation that strives to achieve the highest possible productivity and total quality, cost effectively, by eliminating unnecessary steps in the production process and continually striving for improvement.
Learning Organization
An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
Lease
Contract specifying the rental of property.
Leasehold
Rights the lessor grants to a lessee under the terms of a lease.
Leasehold Improvements
Alterations or improvements to leased property such as partitions and storefronts.
Ledger
Record containing all accounts (with amounts) for a business. Also called General Ledger.
Legal Positivism
The legal philosophy holding that law is what the sovereign says it is, regardless of its moral content.
Legal Realism
The legal philosophy holding that what really influences law is who makes and enforces it, not what is put in writing.
Legal Responsibilities
To obey local, state, federal, and relevant international laws.
Legislative History
Used by courts to interpret the meaning of a statute, this is the record of hearings, speeches, and explanations that accompanied a statute as it made its way from newly proposed bill to final law.
Legislative Rules
Regulations issued by an administrative agency.
Lessee
Party to a lease who secures the right to possess and use the property from another party (the lessor).
Lessor
Party to a lease who grants another party (the lessee) the right to process and use its property.
Level 5 Leadership
A combination of strong professional will (determination) and humility that builds enduring greatness.
Liabilities
Creditor's claims on an organization's assets; involves a probable future payment of assets or services that a company is obligated to make due to past transactions or events.
Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA)
A process of analyzing all inputs and outputs, through the entire "cradle-to-grave" life of a product, to determine total environmental impact.
Lifetime Value of a Customer
Revenues and intangible benefits that a customer brings to an organization over an average lifetime, minus the investment the firm has made to attract and keep the customer.
Limited Liability
Owner can lose no more than the amount invested.
Limited Liability Company
An organization that has the limited liability of a corporation by is not a taxable entity.
Limited Liability Limited Partnership
In a limited liability limited partnership, the general partner is not personally liable for the debts of the partnership.
Limited Partnership
A partnership with two types of partners: (1) limited partners who have no personal liability for the debts of the enterprise nor any right to manage the business, and (2) general partners who are responsible for management and personally liable for all debts.
Line Authority
A manager's right to give direct orders to subordinates and appraise, reward, and discipline those who receive those orders.
Line Extension
Development of individual offerings that appeal to different market segments while remaining closely related to the existing product line.
Line Extension
Development of individual offerings that appeal to different market segments while remaining closely related to the existing product line.
Liquid Assets
Resources such as cash that are easily converted into other assets or used to pay for goods, services, or liabilities.
Liquidity
Availability of resources to meet short-term cash requirements.
Litigation
The process of resolving disputes through formal court proceedings.
Lockout
A management tactic, designed to gain a bargaining advantage, in which the company refuses to allow union members to work (and hence deprives them of their pay).
Logistics
Process of coordinating the flow of information, goods, and services among members of the distribution channel.
Long-term Investments
Long-term assets not used in operating activities such as notes receivable and investments in stocks and bonds.
Long-term Liabilities
Obligations not due to be paid within one year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer.
Low-Cost Strategy
A strategy an organization uses to build competitive advantage by being efficient and offering a standard, no-frills product.
Macroenvironment
The most general environment; includes governments, economic conditions, and other fundamental factors that generally affect all organizations.
Maker of the Note
Entity who signs a note and promises to pay it at maturity.
Management
The process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling human, material, and information resources for the purposes of setting and achieving stated goals; also, a team of people making up an organization's hierarchy.
Management by Exception
Management process to focus on significant variances and give less attention to areas where performance is close to the standard.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A process in which objectives set by a subordinate and a supervisor must be reached within a given time period.
Management Teams
Teams that coordinate and provide direction to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among subunits.
Managerial Accounting
Area of accounting mainly aimed at serving the decision-making needs of internal users.
Managing Diversity
Managing a culturally diverse workforce by recognizing the characteristics common to specific groups of employees while dealing with such employees as individuals and supporting, nurturing, and utilizing their differences to the organization's advantage.
Manufacturer's Brand
Brand name owned by a manufacturer or other producer.
Manufacturers' Representative
Agent wholesaling intermediary that represents manufacturers of related by noncompeting products and receives a commission on each sale.
Manufacturing Budget
Plan that shows the predicted costs for direct materials, direct labor, and overhead to be incurred in manufacturing units in the production budget.
Marginal Tax Rate
Amount of tax payable on the next dollar earned.
Market
Group of people with sufficient purchasing power, authority, and willingness to buy.
Market Development Strategy
Strategy that concentrates on finding new markets for existing products.
Market Penetration Strategy
Strategy that seeks to increase sales of existing products in existing markets.
Market Prospects
Expectations (both good and bad) about a company's future performance as assessed by users and other interested parties.
Market Rate
Interest rate borrowers are willing to pay and lenders are willing to accept for a specific debt agreement given its risk level.
Market Risk Premium
The slope of the SML, the difference between the expected return on a market portfolio and the risk-free rate.
Market Segmentation
Division of the total market into smaller, relatively homogeneous groups.
Market Share/ Market Growth Matrix
Framework that places SBU's on a chart that plots market share against market growth potential.
Marketing
Organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.
Marketing (Distribution) Channel
System of marketing institutions that enhances the physical flow of goods and services, along with ownership title, from producer to consumer or business user.
Marketing Communications
Messages that deal with buyer-seller relationships.
Marketing Concept
Company-wide consumer orientation with the objective of achieving long-run success.
Marketing Ethics
Marketers' standards of conduct and moral values.
Marketing Intermediary (Middleman)
Wholesale or retailer that operates between producers and consumers or business users.
Marketing Mix
Blending of the four strategy elements - product, distribution, promotion, and pricing - to fit the needs and preferences of a specific target market.
Marketing Mix
Blending of the four strategy elements - product, distribution, promotion, and price - to fit the needs and preferences of a specific target market.
Marketing Myopia
Management's failure to recognize the scope of its business.
Marketing Plan
Detailed description of the resources and actions needed to achieve stated marketing objectives.
Marketing Planning
Implementing planning activities devoted to achieving marketing objectives.
Marketing Strategy
Overall, company-wide program for selecting a particular target market and then satisfying consumers in that market through the marketing mix.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
A conception of human needs organizing needs into a hierarchy of five major types.
Mass Customization
The production of varied, individually customized products at the low cost of standardized, mass-produced products.
Master Budget
Comprehensive business plan that includes specific plans for expected sales, product units to be produced, merchandise (or materials) to be purchased, expenses to be incurred, plant assets to be purchased, and amounts of cash to be borrowed or loans to be repaid, as well as a budgeted income statement and balance sheet.
Matching Principle
Prescribes expenses to be reported in the same period as the revenues that were earned as a result of the expenses.
Materiality
Prescribes that accounting for items that significantly impact financial statement and inferences from them adhere strictly to GAAP.
Materials Handling System
Set of activities that move production inputs and other goods within plants, warehouses, and transportation terminals.
Maturity Date of a Note
Date when a note's principal and interest are due.
Maturity Stage
Third stage of the product life cycle, in which industry sales level out.
Maximizing
A decision realizing the best possible outcome.
Mechanistic Organization
A form of organization that seeks to maximize internal efficiency.
Media Richness
The degree to which a communication channel conveys information.
Mediation
The process of using a neutral person to aid in the settlement of a legal dispute. A mediator's decision is non-binding.
Mediator
A third party who intervenes to help others manage their conflict.
Meeting Competition Method
Method of promotional budgeting that simply matches competitors' outlays.
Mentors
Higher level managers who help ensure that high-potential people are introduced to top management and socialized into the norms and values of the organization.
Merchandise Purchases Budget
Plan that shows the units or costs of merchandise to be purchased by a merchandising company during the budget period.
Merchandisers
Trade sector buyers who secure needed products at the best possible prices.
Merger
One or more companies combining.
Message
Communication of information, advice, or a request by the sender to the receiver.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
Freestanding urban area with a population in the urban center of at least 50,000 and a total MSA population of 100,000 or more.
Micromarketing
Targeting potential customers at very narrow, basic levels, such as by zip code, specific occupation, or lifestyle - possibly even individuals themselves.
Micropolitan Statistical Area
Area that has at least one town of 10,000 to 49,999 people with proportionally few of its residents commuting to outside the area.
Middle-level Managers
Managers located in the middle layers of the organizational hierarchy, reporting to top-level executives.
Mission
An organization's basic purpose and scope of operations.
Mission Statement
A mission statement defines the core purpose of the organization - why it exists. Effective missions are inspiring, long-term in nature, and easily understood and communicated.
Missionary Selling
Indirect type of selling in which specialized salespeople promote the firm's goodwill among indirect customers, often by helping customers use products.
Mixed Cost
Cost that behaves like a combination of fixed and variable costs.
Mobile Marketing
Marketing messages transmitted via wireless technology.
Modified Rebuy
Situation in which a purchaser is willing to reevaluate available options for repurchasing a good or service.
Modify
An appellate court order changing a lower court ruling.
Monetary Unit Principle
Principle that assumes transactions and events can be expressed in money units.
Monolithic Organization
An organization that has a low degree of structural integration - employing few women, minorities, or other groups that differ from the majority - and thus has a highly homogenous employee population.
Monopoly
Market structure in which a single seller dominates trade in a good or service for which buyers can find no close substitutes.
Moral Philosophy
Principles, rules, and values people use in deciding what is right or wrong.
Mortgage
Legal loan agreement that protects a lender by giving the lender the right to be paid from the cash proceeds from the sale of a borrower's assets identified in the mortgage.
Motion
A formal request that a court take some specified step during litigation. A motion to compel discovery is a request that a trial judge order the other party to respond to discovery.
Motivation
Forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person's efforts.
Motivation Factor
According to Herzberg, a factor that has the potential to stimulate internal motivation to provide better-than-average performance and commitment.
Motivators
Factors that make a job more motivating, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement.
Multicultural Organization
An organization that values cultural diversity and seeks to utilize and encourage it.
Multinational Corporation
Firm with significant operations and marketing activities outside its home country.
Multinational Model
An organization model that consists of the subsidiaries in each country in which a company does business, with ultimate control exercised by the parent company.
Multiple Sourcing
Purchasing from several vendors.
National Accounts Organization
Promotional effort in which a dedicated sales team is assigned to a firm's major customers to provide sales and service needs.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
The administrative agency charged with overseeing labor law.
Natural Business Year
Twelve-month period that ends when a company's sales activities are at their lowest point.
Natural Law
The theory that an unjust law is no law at all, and that a rule is only legitimate if based on an immutable morality.
Natural Resources
Assets physically consumed when used; Examples are timber, mineral deposits, and oil and gas fields. Also called Wasting Assets.
Nearshoring
Moving jobs to vendors in countries close to the business's home country.
Needs Assessment
An analysis identifying the jobs, people, and departments for which training is necessary.
Negative or Dormant Aspect of the Commerce Clause
The doctrine that prohibits a state from any action that interferes with or discriminates against interstate commerce.
Negative Reinforcement
Removing or withholding an undesirable consequence.
Net Assets
Owner's claim on the assets of a business; equals the residual interest in an entity's assets after deducting liabilities.
Net Income
Amount earned after subtracting all expenses necessary for and matched with sales for a period.
Net Loss
Excess of expenses over revenues for a period.
Net Method
Method of recording purchases at the full invoice price less any cash discounts.
Net Present Value (NPV)
Dollar estimate of an asset's value that is used to evaluate the acceptability of an investment; computed by discounting future cash flows from the investment at a satisfactory rate and then subtracting the initial cost of the investment.
Net Working Capital
Current assets less current liabilities.
Network Marketing
Personal selling that relies on lists of family members and friends of the salesperson, who organizes a gathering of potential customers for a demonstration of products.
Networking
Exchanging information for mutual benefit. Using one's friends, family and work-related contacts to help find employment or to advance one's career.
New-Task Buying
First-time or unique purchase situation that requires considerable effort by decision makers.
Niche Marketing
Marketing strategy that focuses on profitably satisfying a single market segment. Also called Concentrated Marketing.
Noise
Any stimulus that distracts a receiver from receiving a message.
Nominal Group Technique
Technique in which group members follow a generate-discussion-vote cycle until they reach an appropriate decision.
Non-cash Items
Expenses charged against revenues that do not directly affect cash flow, such as depreciation.
Non-personal Selling
Promotion that includes advertising, product placement, sales promotion, direct marketing, public relations, and guerilla marketing - all conducted without being face-to-face with the buyer.
Non-programmed Decisions
New, novel, complex decisions having no proven answers.
Non-sufficient Funds (NSF) Check
Maker's bank account has insufficient money to pay the check. Also called Hot Check.
Norms
Shared beliefs about how people should think and behave.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Accord removing trade barriers between Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
Classification used by NAFTA countries to categorize the business marketplace into detailed market segments.
Note Payable
Liability expressed by a written promise to pay a definite sum of money on demand or on a specific future date(s).
Note Receivable
Asset consisting of a written promise to receive a definite sum of money on demand or on a specific future date(s).
Novation
If there is an existing contract between A and B, a novation occurs when A agrees to release B from all liability on the contract in return for C's willingness to accept B's liability.
Objection
Expression of sales resistance by the prospect.
Objectives
Goals that support a firm's overall mission.
Objectivity Principle
Principle that prescribes independent, unbiased evidence to support financial statement information.
Obligee
The party to a contract who is entitled to receive performance from the other party.
Obligor
The party to a contract who is required to do something for the benefit of the other party.
Obscenity
Constitutional law doctrine holding that some works will receive no First Amendment protection because a court determines they depict sexual matters in an offensive way.
Obsolescence
Condition in which, because of new inventions and improvements, a plant asset can no longer be used to produce goods or services with a competitive advantage.
Off-Balance-Sheet Financing
Acquisition of assets by agreeing to liabilities not reported on the balance sheet.
Offshoring
Movement of high-wage jobs from one country to lower-cost overseas locations.
Oligopoly
Market structure in which relatively few sellers compete and where high start-up costs form barriers to keep out new competitors.
One-way Communication
A process in which information flows in only one direction: from the sender to the receiver, with no feedback loop.
Online Processing
Approach to inputting data from source documents as soon as the information is available.
Open Systems
Organizations that are affected by, and that affect their environment.
Open-Book Management
Practice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital information previously meant for management's eyes only.
Operating Activities
Activities that involve the production or purchase of merchandise and the sale of goods or services to customers, including expenditures related to administering the business.
Operating Cash Flow
Cash generated from a firm's normal business activities.
Operating Cycle
Normal time between paying cash for merchandise or employee services and receiving cash from customers.
Operating Leases
Short-term (or cancelable) leases in which the lessor retains risks and rewards of ownership.
Operational Planning
The process of identifying the specific procedures and processes required at lower levels of the organization.
Optimizing
Achieving the best possible balance among several goals.
Order Processing
Selling, mostly at the wholesale and retail levels, that involves identifying customer needs, pointing them out to customers, and completing orders.
Ordinary Repairs
Repairs to keep a plant asset in normal, good operating condition; treated as a revenue expenditure and immediately expensed.
Organic Structure
An organizational form that emphasizes flexibility.
Organization Marketing
Marketing by mutual-benefit organizations, service organizations, and government organizations intended to influence others to accept their goals, receive their services, or contribute to them in some way.
Organizational Behavior Method (OB Mod)
The application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings.
Organizing
The management function of assembling and coordinating human, financial, physical, informational, and other resources needed to achieve goals.
Orientation Training
Training designed to introduce new employees to the company and familiarize them with policies, procedures, culture, and the like.
Outbound Telemarketing
Sales method in which sales representatives place phone calls to prospects and try to conclude the sale over the phone.
Outcome
A consequence a person receives for his or her performance.
Outplacement
The process of helping people who have been dismissed from the company to regain employment elsewhere.
Output Devices
Means by which information is taken out of the accounting system and made available for use.
Outputs
The products or services organizations create.
Outsourcing
Using outside vendors to provide goods and services formerly produced in-house. Part of a make-or-buy decision.
Outstanding Checks
Checks written and recorded by the depositor but not yet paid by the bank at the bank statement date.
Overhead Cost Variance
Difference between the total overhead cost applied to products and the total overhead cost actually incurred.
Override
The power of Congress or a state legislature to pass legislation despite a veto by a president or governor. A congressional override requires a two-thirds vote in each house.
Over-the-Counter Selling
Personal selling conducted in retail and some wholesale locations in which customers come to the seller's place of business.
Owner Capital
Account showing the owner's claim on company assets; Equals owner investments plus net income (or net loss) minus owner withdrawals since the company's inception. Also referred to as Equity.
Owner Investment
Assets put into the business by the owner.
Owner Withdrawals
Payment of cash or other assets from a proprietorship to its owner or owners.
Owner's Equity
Owner's claim on the assets of a business; equals the residual interest in an entity's assets after deducting liabilities. Also called Net Assets.
Paid-in Capital
Contributed Capital.
Par Value of a Bond
Amount the bond issuer agrees to pay at maturity and the amount on which cash interest payments are based. Also called Face Amount or Face Value.
Parading
A team strategy that entails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external visibility.
Parallel Teams
Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily.
Participation in Decision Making
Leader behaviors that managers perform in involving their employees in making decisions.
Participative Leadership
When a manager is willing to share decision-making and problem-solving activities with associates. It also occurs in teams when individual members of a group take part in the decision-making process.
Partnership
Unincorporated association of two or more persons to pursue a business for profit as co-owners.
Patent
Exclusive right granted to its owner to produce and sell an item or use a process for 17 years.
Path-goal Theory
A theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates' perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals.
Payback Period (PBP)
Time-based measurement used to evaluate the acceptability of an investment; equals the time expected to pass before an investment's net cash flows equal to its initial cost.
Payee of the Note
Entity to whom a note is made payable.
Pension Plan
Contractual agreement between an employer and its employees for the employer to provide benefits to employees after they retire; expensed when incurred.
Percentage-of-Sales Method
Method of promotional budgeting in which a dollar amount is based on a percentage of past or projected sales.
Perception
The process of receiving and interpreting information.
Peremptory Challenge
During voir dire, a request by one attorney that a prospective juror be excused for an unstated reason.
Performance Appraisal (PA)
Assessment of an employee's job performance.
Permanent Accounts
Accounts that reflect activities related to one or more future periods; balance sheet accounts whose balances are not closed. Also called Real Accounts.
Person Marketing
Marketing efforts designed to cultivate the attention, interest, and preferences of a target market toward a person (perhaps a political candidate or celebrity).
Personal Selling
Interpersonal influence process involving a seller's promotional presentation conducted on a person-to-person basis with the buyer.
Petty Cash
Small amount of cash in a fund to pay minor expenses.
Philanthropic Responsibilities
Additional behaviors and activities that society finds desirable and that the values of the business support.
Physical Distribution Functions
Broad range of activities aimed at efficiently moving finished goods from the end of the production line to the consumer.
Place Marketing
Marketing efforts to attract people and organizations to a particular geographic area.
Plain Meaning Rule
In statutory interpretation, the premise that words with an ordinary, everyday significance will be so interpreted, unless there is some apparent reason not to.
Planned Obsolescence
Intentional design, manufacture, and marketing products with limited durability.
Planning
Process of anticipating future events and conditions and of determining the best way to achieve organizational objectives.
Planning
The management function of systematically making decisions about the goals and activities that an individual, a group, a work unit, or the overall organization will pursue.
Plans
The actions or means managers intend to use to achieve organizational goals.
Plant Assets
Tangible long-lived assets used to produce or sell products and services. Also called Property, Plant, and Equipment, or Fixed Assets.
Pleadings
The documents that begin a lawsuit: the complaint, the answer, the counter-claim and reply.
Pledged Assets to Secured Liabilities
Ratio of the book value of a company's pledged assets to the book value of its secured liabilities.
Pluralistic Organization
An organization that has a relatively diverse employee population and makes an effort to involve employees from different gender, racial, or cultural backgrounds.
Point-of-Purchase (POP) Advertising
Display or other promotion placed near the site of the actual buying decision.
Political Risk Assessment (PRA)
Units within a firm that evaluate the political risks of the marketplaces in which they operate as well as proposed new marketplaces.
Political-Legal Environment
Component of the marketing environment consisting of laws and their interpretations that require firms to operate under competitive conditions and to protect consumer rights.
Porter's Five Forces
Model developed by strategy expert Michael Porter that identifies five competitive forces that influence planning strategies: the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of substitute products, and rivalry among competitors.
Portfolio
A group of assets such as stocks and bonds held by an investor.
Portfolio Analysis
Evaluation of a company's products and divisions to determine which are strongest and which are weakest.
Portfolio Weight
A percentage of a portfolio's total value that is in a particular asset.
Positioning
Placing a product at a certain point or location within a market in the minds of prospective buyers.
Positioning Map
Tool that helps marketers place products in a market by graphically illustrating consumers' perceptions of competing products within an industry.
Positive Aspect of the Commerce Clause
The power granted to Congress to regulate commerce between the states.
Positive Reinforcement
Applying consequences that increase the likelihood that a person will repeat the behavior that led to it.
Post-Closing Trial Balance
List of permanent accounts and their balances from the ledger after all closing entries are journalized and posted.
Posting
Process of transferring journal entry information to the ledger.
Posting Reference (PR) Column
A column in journals in which individual ledger account numbers are entered when entries are posted to those ledger accounts.
Power
The ability to influence others.
Precall Planning
Use of information collected during the prospecting and qualifying stages of the sales process and during previous contacts with the prospect to tailor the approach and presentation to match the customer's needs.
Precedent
An earlier case that decided the same legal issue as that presently in dispute, and which therefore will control the outcome of the current case.
Preemption
The doctrine, based on the Supremacy Clause, by which any federal statute takes priority whenever (1) a state statute conflicts or (2) there is not conflict but Congress indicated an intention to control the issue involved.
Premium
Item given free or at reduced cost with purchases of other products.
Premium on Bonds
Difference between a bond's par value and its higher carrying value; occurs when the contract rate is higher than the market rate. Also called Bond Premium.
Prepaid Expenses
Items paid for in advance of receiving their benefits; Classified as Assets.
Preponderance of the Evidence
The level of proof that a plaintiff must meet to prevail in a civil lawsuit. It means that the plaintiff must offer evidence that, in sum, is slightly more persuasive than the defendant's evidence.
Present Value (PV)
The current value of future cash flows discounted at the appropriate discount rate.
Presentation
Personal selling function of describing a product's major features and relating them to a customer's problems or needs.
Presentment
A holder of an instrument makes a demand for payment.
Price Variance
Difference between actual and budgeted revenue or cost caused by the difference between the actual price per unit and the budgeted price per unit.
Pricing Strategy
Methods of setting profitable and justifiable prices.
Primary Demand
Desire for a general product category.
Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA)
Urbanized county or set of counties with social and economic ties to nearby areas.
Principal of a Note
Amount that the signer of a note agrees to pay back when it matures, not including interest.
Principle of Diversification
Spreading an investment across a number of assets will eliminate some, but not all, of the risk.
Principle of Right Sizing
This principle deals with matching your organization's size with its business goals. Large corporations used to use this term instead of downsizing. They would say that the organization had gotten too big and they were right sizing.
Principles of Internal Control
Principles requiring management to establish responsibility, maintain records, insure assets, separate recordkeeping from custody of assets, divide responsibility for related transactions, apply technological controls, and perform reviews.
Priority Setting
Putting activities in order of importance to you, the group, or the business.
Privacy Act
A federal statute prohibiting federal agencies from divulging to other agencies or organizations information about private citizens.
Private Brand
Brand offered by a wholesaler or retailer.
Private Carriers
Transporters that provide service solely for internally generated freight.
Pro Forma Financial Statements
Statements that show the effects of proposed transactions and events as if they had occurred.
Probing
A team strategy, that requires team members to interact frequently with outsiders, diagnose their needs, and experiment with solutions.
Procedural Justice
Using fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible.
Procedural Law
The rules establishing how the legal system itself is to operate in a particular kind of case.
Product
Bundle of physical, service, and symbolic attributes designed to satisfy a customer's wants and needs.
Product Development
Introduction of new products into identifiable or established markets.
Product Differentiation
Occurs when consumers regard a firm's products as different in some way from those of competitors.
Product Diversification Strategy
Developing entirely new products for new markets.
Product Liability
Responsibility of manufacturers and marketers for injuries and damages caused by their products.
Product Life Cycle
Progression of a product through introduction, growth, maturity, and decline stages.
Product Line
Series of related products offered by one company.
Product Manager
Marketer within an organization who is responsible for an individual product or product line; also called a brand manager.
Product Mix
Assortment of product lines and individual product offerings that a company sells.
Product Placement
Form of promotion in which a marketer pays a motion picture or television program owner a fee to display a product prominently in the film or show.
Product Positioning
Consumers' perceptions of a product's attributes, uses, quality, and advantages and disadvantages relative to competing brands.
Product Strategy
Decisions about what goods or services a firm will offer its customers; also includes decisions about customer service, packaging, brand names, and the like.
Production Budget
Plan that shows the units to be produced each period.
Production of Documents and Things
A form of discovery in which one party demands that the other furnish original documents of physical things, relating to the suit, for inspection and copying.
Production Orientation
Business philosophy stressing efficiency in producing a quality product, with the attitude toward marketing that "a good product will sell itself."
Product-Related Segmentation
Division of a population into homogeneous groups based on their relationships to the product.
Professional Corporation
A form of organization that permits professionals (such as doctors, lawyers, and accountants) to incorporate. Shareholders are not personally liable for the torts of other shareholders, or for the contract debts of the organization.
Profit
Amount earned after subtracting all expenses necessary for and matched with sales for a period. Also called Income or Earnings.
Profit Margin
Ratio of a company's net income to its net sales; the percent of income in each dollar of revenue. Also called Net Profit Margin.
Profitability
Company's ability to generate an adequate return on invested capital.
Programmed Decisions
Decisions encountered and made before, having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using simple rules, policies, or numerical computations.
Project and Development Teams
Teams that work on long-term projects but disband once the work is completed.
Promissory Note
Written promise to pay a specified amount either on demand or at a definite future date; is a note receivable for the lender but a note payable for the lendee. Also called Note.
Promotion
Communication link between buyers and sellers; the function of informing, persuading, and influencing a consumer's purchase decision.
Promotion
Communication link between buyers and sellers; the function of informing, persuading, and influencing a consumer's purchase decision.
Promotional Mix
Subset of the marketing mix in which marketers attempt to achieve the optimal blending of the elements of personal and non-personal selling to achieve promotional objectives.
Promulgate
To issue a new rule.
Proprietorship
Business owned by one person that is not organized as a corporation.
Prospecting
Personal selling function of identifying potential customers.
Prospectors
Companies that continuously change the boundaries for their task environments by seeking new products and markets, diversifying and merging, or acquiring new enterprises.
Protective Order
A court order limiting one party's discovery.
Protective Tariff
Taxes designed to raise the retail price of an imported product to match or exceed that of a similar domestic product.
Pseudotransformational Leaders
Leaders who talk about positive change but allow their self interest to take precedence over followers' needs.
Psychographic Segmentation
Division of a population into groups that have similar psychological characteristics, values, and lifestyles.
Psychological Contract
A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them.
Public Relations
Firm's communications and relationships with its various publics.
Public Service Announcements (PSAs)
Advertisements aimed at achieving socially oriented objectives by focusing on causes and charitable organizations that are included in print and electronic media without charge.
Publicity
Non-personal stimulation of demand for a good, service, place, idea, person, or organization by unpaid placement of significant news regarding the product in a print or broadcast medium.
Pulling Strategy
Promotional effort by the seller to stimulate final-use demand, which then exerts pressure on the distribution channel.
Punishment
Administering an aversive consequence.
Purchase Order
Document used by the purchasing department to place an order with a seller (vendor).
Purchase Requisition
Document listing merchandise needed by a department and requesting it be purchased.
Purchases Journal
Journal normally used to record all purchases on credit.
Push Money
Financial incentive that gives retail salespeople cash rewards for every unit of a product they sell.
Pushing Strategy
Promotional effort by the seller directed to members of the marketing channel rather than final users.
Qualifying
Determining that a prospect has the needs, income, and purchase authority necessary for being a potential customer.
Quality
The excellence of your product (goods or services).
Quality Circles
Voluntary groups of people drawn from various production teams who make suggestions about quality.
Quality of Work Life (QWL) Programs
Programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well being.
Quantity Variance
Difference between actual and budgeted revenue or cost caused by the difference between the actual number of units and the budgeted number of units.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Technology that uses a tiny chip with identification information that can be read by a scanner using radio waves from a distance.
Ratio Analysis
Determination of key relations between financial statement items as reflected in numerical measures.
Ready-Made Solutions
Ideas that have been seen or tried before.
Realizable Value
Expected proceeds from converting an asset into cash.
Reasonable Doubt
The level of proof that the government must meet to convict the defendant in a criminal case. The factfinder must be persuaded to a very high degree of certainty that the defendant did what the government alleges.
Receiving Report
Form used to report that ordered goods are received and to describe their quantity and condition.
Reciprocity
Buying from suppliers that are also customers.
Recordkeeping
Part of accounting that involves recording transactions and events, either manually or electronically. Also called Bookkeeping.
Recruitment
The development of a pool of applicants for jobs in an organization.
Reflecting
Contemplating and considering the significance of the work performed; evaluating the value and meaning of the specific service as it relates to a larger context.
Reflection
Process by which a person states what he or she believes the other person is saying.
Refund
Cash given back to consumers who send in proof of purchasing one or more products.
Registered Bonds
Bonds owned by investors whose names and addresses are recorded by the issuer; interest payments are made to the registered owners.
Reinforcers
Positive consequences that motivate behavior.
Related Party Trade
Trade by U.S. companies with their subsidiaries overseas as well as trade by U.S. subsidiaries of foreign-owned firms with their parent companies.
Relationship Marketing
Development and maintenance of long-term, cost-effective relationships with individual customers, suppliers, employees, and other partners for mutual benefit.
Relationship Selling
Regular contacts between sales representatives and customers over an extended period to establish a sustained buyer-seller relationship
Relativism
Bases ethical behavior on the opinions and behaviors of relevant other people.
Relevance Principle
Information system principle prescribing that its reports be useful, understandable, timely, and pertinent for decision making.
Relevant Benefits
Additional or incremental revenue generated by selecting a particular course of action over another.
Reliability
The consistency of test scores over time and across alternative measurements.
Remand
The power of an appellate court to return a case to a lower court for additional action.
Remanufacturing
Efforts to restore older products to like-new condition.
Reply
A pleading, filed by the plaintiff in response to a defendant's counter-claim.
Report Form Balance Sheet
Balance sheet that lists accounts vertically in the order of assets, liabilities, and equity.
Repositioning
Changing the position of a product within the minds of prospective buyers relative to the positions of competing products.
Request for Admission
A form of discovery in which one party demands that the opposing party either admit or deny particular factual or legal allegations.
Reseller
Marketing intermediaries that operate in the trade sector.
Resources
Inputs to a system that can enhance performance.
Results Orientation
Knowing what results are important and focusing resources to achieve them. Focuses on having a diverse, high-performing workforce, and a performance management system that effectively plans, monitors, develops, rates, and rewards employee performance.
Retail Cooperative
Group of retailers that establish a shared wholesaling operation to help them compete with chains.
Return
Monies received from an investment; often in percent form.
Return on Equity
Ratio of net income to average equity.
Return on Total Assets
Ratio reflecting operating efficiency; defined as net income divided by average total assets. Also called Return on Assets or Return on Investment.
Revenue Expenditures
Expenditures reported on the current income statement as an expense because they do not provide benefits in future periods.
Revenue Recognition Principle
The principle prescribing that revenue is recognized when earned.
Revenues
Gross increase in equity from a company's business activities that earn income. Also called Sales.
Reverse Channel
Channel designed to return goods to their producers.
Reversing Entries
Optional entries recorded at the beginning of a new period that prepare the accounts for the usual journal entries as if adjusting entries had not occurred.
Rewards
A satisfying return or result for performance of a required behavior.
Rightsizing
A successful effort to achieve an appropriate size at which the company performs most effectively.
Right-to-Work
Legislation that allows employees to work without having to join a union.
Risk
Uncertainty about an expected return. The state that exists when the probability of success is less than 100 percent, and losses may occur.
Risk Aversion
An economic concept related to the behavior of consumers under uncertainty. It is the reluctance of a person to accept something with an uncertain payoff rather than something else with a more certain, but possibly lower, expected payoff.
Risk Taking
The willingness to make mistakes, advocate unconventional or unpopular positions, or tackle extremely challenging problems without obvious solutions. Risk takers are willing to tackle challenging tasks, even when success is uncertain.
Role Ambiguity
The situation that exists whenever a manager is uncertain about the role they are expected to play due to a lack of clarity regarding duties, responsibilities, and/or authority. Role ambiguity may be due to the complexity of the job.
Role Conflict
A situation that occurs when contradictory or opposing demands are made on a manager. For example, a boss will suffer role conflict if forced to fire an employee who is also a close friend.
Role Playing
Technique used for overcoming shyness. Often a script is given to an individual to act out situations that help the individual become more comfortable.
Roles
Different sets of expectations for how different individuals should behave.
Rolling Budget
New set of budgets a firm adds for the next period (with revisions) to replace the ones that have lapsed.
Rule of Three
Three dominant companies in an industry that will capture 70 to 90 percent of the market.
Rulemaking
The power of an administrative agency to issue regulations.
Rules of Evidence
Law governing the proof offered during a trial or formal hearing. These rules limit the questions that may be asked of witnesses and the introduction of physical objects.
S Corporation
A corporation that is not a taxable entity.
Safety Stock
Quantity of inventory or materials over the minimum needed to satisfy budgeted demand.
Salary
Fixed compensation payment made periodically to an employee.
Sales
Gross increase in equity from a company's business activities that earn income. Also called Revenues.
Sales Budget
Plan showing the units of goods to be sold or services to be provided; the starting point in the budgeting process for most departments.
Sales Incentives
Programs that reward salespeople for superior performance.
Sales Journal
Journal normally used to record sales of goods on credit.
Sales Orientation
Business assumption that consumers will resist purchasing non-essential goods and services, with the attitude toward marketing that only creative advertising and personal selling can overcome consumers' resistance and persuade them to buy.
Sales Promotion
Marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising, guerilla marketing, and public relations that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness.
Sales Quota
Level of expected sales for a territory, product, customer, or salesperson against which actual results are compared.
Salvage Value
Estimate of amount to be recovered at the end of an asset's useful life. Also called Residual Value, or Scrap Value.
Sampling
In market research, the process of selecting survey respondents or research participants; in sales promotion, free distribution of a product in an attempt to obtain future sales.
Sanctions
Negative means, such as threat or punishments, used to encourage subordinates to play their roles as prescribed by superiors or the organization.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act
An act passed into law by Congress in 2002 to establish strict accounting and reporting rules in order to make senior managers more accountable and to improve and maintain investor confidence.
Satisficing
Choosing an option that is acceptable, although not necessarily the best or perfect.
Scenario
A narrative that describes a particular set of future conditions.
Schedule of Accounts Payable
List of the balances of all accounts in the accounts payable ledger and their total.
Schedule of Accounts Receivable
List of balances for all accounts in the accounts receivable ledger and their total.
Scoreboarding
Providing feedback on individual and team efforts to reach goals.
Scribing
Group role where the individual takes notes for the group or is the record keeper.
Second Mover Strategy
Theory that advocates observing closely the innovations of first movers and then improving on them to gain advantage in the marketplace.
Secured Bonds
Bonds that have specific assets of the issuer pledged as collateral.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Federal agency Congress has charged to set reporting rules for organizations that sell ownership shares to the public.
Security Market Line (SML)
A positively sloped straight line displaying the relationship between expected return and beta.
Segment Return on Assets
Segment operating income divided by segment average (identifiable) assets.
Selection
Choosing from among qualified applicants to hire into an organization.
Selective Demand
Desire for a specific brand within a product category.
Selective Distribution
Distribution of a product through a limited number of channels.
Self-Designing Teams
Teams with the responsibilities of autonomous work groups, plus control over hiring, firing, and what tasks members perform.
Self-Managed Teams
Autonomous work groups in which workers are trained to do all or most of the jobs in a unit, have no immediate supervisor, and make decisions previously made by first-line supervisors.
Self-Monitoring
The individual ascertaining how well he or she is doing.
Seller's Market
Market in which there are more buyers for fewer goods and services.
Selling Expense Budget
Plan that lists the types and amounts of selling expenses expected in the budget period.
Semi-autonomous Work Groups
Groups that make decisions about managing and carrying out major production activities, but still get outside support for quality control and maintenance.
Sender
Source of the message communicated to the receiver.
Separation of Powers
The principle, established by the first three articles of the Constitution, that authority should be divided among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
Serial Bonds
Bonds consisting of separate amounts that mature at different dates.
Servant Leader
A leader who serves others' needs while strengthening the organization.
Services
Intangible tasks that satisfy the needs of consumer and business users.
Sexual Harassment
Conduct of a sexual nature that has negative consequences for employment.
Shared Leadership
Rotating leadership, in which people rotate through the leadership role based on which person has the most relevant skills at a particular time.
Shareholders
Owners of a corporation. Also called Stockholders.
Shares
Equity of a corporation divided into units. Also called Stock.
Shopping Products
Products that consumers purchase after comparing competing offerings.
Signature Card
Includes the signatures of each person authorized to sign checks on the bank account.
Simple Interest
Interest earned only on the original principal amount invested.
Simultaneous Engineering
A design approach in which all relevant functions cooperate jointly and continually in a maximum effort aimed at producing high-quality products that meet customers' needs.
Sinking Fund Bonds
Bonds that require the issuer to make deposits to a separate account; bondholders are repaid at maturity from that account.
Situational Analysis
A process planners use, within time and resource constraints, to gather, interpret, and summarize all information relevant to the planning issue under consideration.
Situational Approach
Leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.
Slotting Allowances
Money paid by vendors to retailers to guarantee display of merchandise.
Small Batch
Technologies that produce goods and services in low volume.
Smoothing
Leveling normal fluctuations at the boundaries of the environment.
Social Capital
Goodwill stemming from your social relationships.
Social Contract
The idea of Beccaria and other members of the Classical School that government can be thought of as created by its citizens for certain shared and common ends. "Social Contract Theory" uses this notion to determine when laws are just or unjust.
Social Loafing
Occurs when individuals believe that their contributions are not important, others will do the work for them, their lack of effort will go undetected, or they will be the loser if they work hard.
Social Responsibility
Being accountable for the impact that one's actions might have on society.
Social Responsibility
Marketing philosophies, policies, procedures, and actions whose primary objective is the enhancement of society.
Social-Cultural Environment
Component of the marketing environment consisting of the relationship between marketer, society, and culture.
Sole Proprietorship
Business owned by one person that is not organized as a corporation. Also called Proprietorship.
Sole Sourcing
Purchasing a firm's entire stock of an item from just one vendor.
Solvency
Company's long-run financial viability and its ability to cover long-term obligations.
Source Documents
Source of information for accounting entries that can be in either paper or electronic form. Also called Business Papers.
Sources of Cash
A firm's activities that generate cash.
Span of Control
The number of representatives who report to first-level sales managers.
Spanning
This may refer to span of control. Span of control refers to the number of people that a manager can oversee. A wide span of control discourages one-on-one supervision. There are too many subordinates for managers to keep up with on a one-to-one basis.
Special Journal
Any journal used for recording and posting transactions of a similar type.
Specialty Advertising
Sales promotion technique that places the advertiser's name, address, and advertising message on useful articles that are then distributed to target customers.
Specialty Products
Products that offer unique characteristics that cause buyers to prize those particular brands.
Speed
Fast and timely execution, response, and delivery of results.
Spending Variance
Difference between the actual price of an item and its standard price.
Sponsorship
Relationship in which an organization provides funds or in-kind resources to an event or activity in exchange for a direct association with that event or activity.
Spot Strokes
Verbal or written praise to reward performance.
Spreadsheet
Computer program that organizes data by means of formulas and format. Also called Electronic Work Sheet.
Spreadsheet Analysis
Grid that organizes numerical information in a standardized, easily understood format.
Stakeholder
Someone other than a stockholder or creditor who potentially has a claim on the cash flows of the firm.
Stakeholders for Non-Profits
The various groups and individuals who affect and are affected by the company. Examples of stakeholders include suppliers, workers, customers, investors, and the community where it operates, etc.
Standard Costs
Costs that should be incurred under normal conditions to produce a product or component or to perform a service.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code
A U.S. government code used to classify a firm by its type of business operations.
Staples
Convenience goods and services that consumers constantly replenish to maintain a ready inventory.
Stare Decisis
"Let the decision stand." A basic principle of the common law, it means that precedent is usually binding.
Statement of Cash Flows
A financial statement that lists cash inflows (receipts) and cash outflows (payments) during a period; arranged by operating, investing, and financing.
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS)
FASB publications that establish U.S. GAAP.
Statement of Owner's Equity
Report of changes in equity over a period; adjusted for increases (owner investment and net income) and for (withdrawals and net loss).
Statute
A law passed by a legislative body, such as Congress.
Statutory Interpretation
A court's power to give meaning to new legislation by clarifying ambiguities, providing limits, and ultimately applying it to a specific fact pattern in litigation.
Stock
Equity of a corporation divided into units. Also called Shares.
Stockholders
Owners of a corporation. Also called Shareholders.
Straight Rebuy
Recurring purchase decision in which a customer repurchases a good or service that has preformed satisfactorily in the past.
Straight-Line Depreciation
Method that allocates an equal portion of the depreciable cost of plant asset (cost minus salvage) to each accounting period in its useful life.
Straight-Line Method
Method allocating an equal amount of bond interest expense to each period in the life of bonds.
Strategic Alliance
Partnerships in which two or more companies combine resources and capital to create competitive advantages in a new market.
Strategic Business Unit (SBU)
Key business units within diversified firms.
Strategic Control System
A system designed to support managers in evaluating the organization's progress regarding its strategy and, when discrepancies exist, taking corrective action.
Strategic Goals
Major targets or end results relating to the organization's long-term survival, value, and growth.
Strategic Leadership
Behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future.
Strategic Management
A process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and implementation of strategic goals and strategies.
Strategic Maneuvering
An organization's conscious efforts to change the boundaries of its task environment.
Strategic Planning
A set of procedures for making decisions about the organization's long-term goals and strategies.
Strategic Vision
The long-term direction and strategic intent of a company.
Strategic Window
Limited periods during which the key requirements of a market and the particular competencies of a firm best fit together.
Strategy
A pattern of actions and resource allocations designed to achieve the organization's goals.
Stretch Goals
Targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even though to be impossible.
Strike
The ultimate weapon of a labor union, it occurs when all or most employees of a particular plant or employer walk off the job and refuse to work.
Structured Interview
Selection technique that involves asking all applicants the same questions and comparing their responses to a standardized set of answers.
Subcontracting
Contractual agreements that assign the production of goods or services to local or smaller firms.
Suboptimization
Condition that results when individual operations achieve their objectives but interfere with progress toward broader organizational goals.
Subpoena
An order to appear, issued by a court or government body.
Subpoena Duces Tecum
An order to produce certain documents or things before a court or government body.
Subsidiary Ledger
List of individual sub-accounts and amounts with a common characteristic; linked to a controlling account in the general ledger.
Subsidy
Government financial support of a private industry.
Substantive Law
Rules that establish the rights of parties. For example, the prohibition against slander is substantive law, as opposed to procedural law.
Substantive Outcomes
An outcome is a consequence that a person receives for his or her performance. Substantive refers to substantial outcomes.
Substitutes
Goods that can be used to satisfy the same needs. The buyer carries out a conscious process of choice. May also refer to leadership theory and using one theory in place of another depending on the situation.
Substitutes for Leadership
Factors in the workplace that can exert the same influence on employees that leaders would provide.
Summary Judgment
The power of a trial court to terminate a lawsuit before a trial has begun, on the grounds that no essential facts are in dispute.
Supervisory Leadership
Behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.
Supply Chain
Linkages of services or goods extending from suppliers, to the company itself, and on to customers.
Supply Chain Management
Control of the activities of purchasing, processing, and delivery through which raw materials are transformed into products and made available to final consumers.
Supremacy Clause
From Article VI of the Constitution, it declares that federal statutes and treaties take priority over any state law, if there is a conflict between the two or, even absent a conflict, if Congress manifests an intent to preempt the field.
Survivor's Syndrome
Loss of productivity and morale in employees who remain after a downsizing.
Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Superior market position that a firm possesses and can maintain for an extended period of time.
Sustainable Growth
Economic growth and development that meets present needs without harming the needs of future generations.
Sweepstakes
Sales promotion technique in which prize winners are selected by chance.
Switching Costs
Fixed costs buyers face when they change suppliers.
SWOT Analysis
A comparison of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats that helps executives formulate strategy.
Synergy
Cooperative Action or force of two or more elements pulling together that yields a result greater than the sum of the results that could be achieved separately.
Systematic Risk
A risk that influences a large number of assets. Also called Market Risk.
Systematic Risk Principle
The expected return on a risky asset depends only on that asset's systematic risk.
Systems Integration
Centralization of the procurement function within an internal division or as a service of an external supplier.
T-Account
Tool used to show the effects of transactions and event on individual accounts.
Tactical Planning
A set of procedures for translating broad strategic goals and plans into specific goals and plans that are relevant to a distinct portion of the organization, such as a functional area like marketing.
Takings Clause
Part of the Fifth Amendment, it ensures that when any governmental unit takes private property for public use, it must compensate the owner.
Target Market
Segment to whom a firm decides to direct its marketing efforts and ultimately its goods and services.
Tariff
Tax levied against imported goods.
Task Force
A temporary grouping of individuals and resources for the accomplishment of a specific objective.
Task Orientation
Concerned with achieving productivity and success. Focusing on the leader's tasks and skills necessary for success.
Task Performance Behaviors
Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals.
Task-Objective Method
Development of a promotional budget based on evaluation of the firm's promotional objectives.
Team
Groups of two or more members who interact ad influence and are mutually accountable for common objectives within an organization.
Team Facilitator
A supervisor in charge of teams, but who works outside of them.
Team Leader
A supervisor working in a team who is responsible for its members.
Team Selling
Selling situation in which several sales associates or other members of the organization are recruited to help the lead sales representative reach all those who influence the purchase decision.
Team Training
Training that provides employees with the skills and perspectives they need to work in collaboration with others.
Technical Skill
The ability to perform a specialized task involving a particular method or process.
Technological Environment
Application of marketing of knowledge based on discoveries in science, inventions, and innovations.
Technology
Business application or knowledge based on scientific discoveries inventions, and innovations.
Telemarketing
Promotional presentation involving the use of the telephone on an outbound basis by salespeople or on an inbound basis by customers who initiate calls to obtain information and place orders.
Temporary Accounts
Accounts used to record revenues, expenses, and withdrawals (and dividends for a corporation); they are closed at the end of each period. Also called Nominal Accounts.
Term Bonds
Bonds scheduled for payment (maturity) at a single specified date.
Termination Interview
A discussion between a manager and an employee about the employee's dismissal.
Theory X
Concept described by Douglas McGregor indicating an approach to management that takes a negative and pessimistic view of workers. Theory X attitudes: most employees dislike work and will avoid it when possible.
Theory Y
Concept described by Douglas McGregor reflecting an approach to management that takes a positive and optimistic perspective on workers. Most people find work as natural as play.
Theory Z
A set of approaches to managing people based on the attitudes of Japanese managers about the importance of the individual and of team effort to the organization.
Third Party (Contract) Logistics Firm
Company that specializes in handling logistics activities for other firms.
Third Party Beneficiary
Someone who stands to benefit from a contract to which she is not a party. An intended beneficiary may enforce such a contract; an incidental beneficiary may not.
Third-country Nationals
Natives of a country other than the home country or the host country of an overseas subsidiary.
Three-Fifths Clause
A clause in Article 1, section 2 of the United States Constitution, now void and regarded as racist, which required that for purposes of taxation and representation, a slave should be counted as three-fifths of a person.
Time Period Principle
Assumption that an organization's activities can be divided into specific time periods such as months, quarters, or years.
Time-Based Competition
Strategy of developing and distributing goods and services more quickly than competitors.
Top-level Managers
Senior executives responsible for the overall management and effectiveness of the organization.
Total Asset Turnover
Measure of a company's ability to use its assets to generate sales; Computed by dividing net sales by average total assets.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Continuous effort to improve products and work processes with the goal of achieving customer satisfaction and world-class performance.
Trade Allowance
Special financial incentive offered to wholesalers and retailers that purchase or promote specific products.
Trade Dress
Visual components that contribute to the overall look of a brand.
Trade Industries
Retailers or wholesalers that purchase products for resale to others.
Trade Promotion
Sales promotion that appeals to marketing intermediaries rather than to consumers.
Trade Show
Product exhibition organized by industry trade associations to showcase goods and services.
Trademark
Brand for which the owner claims exclusive legal protection.
Trademark or Trade (Brand) Name
Symbol, name, phrase, or jingle identified with a company, product, or service.
Training
Teaching lower-level employees how to perform their present jobs.
Trait Approach
A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share.
Transaction
Exchange of economic consideration affecting an entity's financial position that can be reliably measured.
Transactional Leaders
Leaders who manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered.
Transaction-based Marketing
Buyer and seller exchanges characterized by limited communications and little or no ongoing relationships between the parties.
Transcendent Education
An education with five higher goals that balance self-interest with responsibility to others.
Transformational Leader
A leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group.
Transnational Model
An organization model characterized by centralization of certain functions in locations that best achieve cost economies; basing of other functions in the company's national subsidiaries to facilitate greater local responsiveness; and fostering of communication among subsidiaries to permit transfer of technological expertise and skills.
Trial Balance
List of accounts and their balances at a point in time prior to financial statement preparation; total debit balances equal total credit balances.
Trial Court
Any court in a state or federal system that holds formal hearings to determine the facts in a civil or criminal case.
Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg's theory describing two factors affecting people's work motivation and satisfaction.
Two-Way Communication
A process in which information flows in two directions: the receiver provides feedback, and the sender is receptive to the feedback.
Tying Agreement
Arrangement that requires a marketing intermediary to carry items other than those they want to sell.
Unadjusted Trial Balance
List of accounts and balances prepared before adjustments are recorded and posted.
Unavoidable Expense
Expense (or cost) that is not relevant for business decisions; an expense that would continue even if a department, product, or service is eliminated.
Uncertainty
The state that exists when decision makers have insufficient information.
Unclassified Balance Sheet
Balance sheet that broadly groups assets, liabilities, and equity accounts.
Undifferentiated Marketing
Strategy that focuses on producing a single product and marketing it to all customers. Also called Mass Marketing.
Unemployment
Proportion of people in the economy who are actively seeking work but do not have jobs.
Unfair Labor Practice
An act, committed by either a union or an employer, that violates the National Labor Relations Act, such as failing to bargain in good faith.
Unfavorable Variance
Difference in revenues or costs, when the actual value is compared to the budgeted value, that contributes to a lower income.
Union Shop
An organization with a union and a union security clause specifying that workers must join the union after a set period of time.
Units-of-Production Depreciation
Method that charges a varying amount to depreciation expense for each period of an asset's useful life depending on its usage.
Universal Product Code (UPC)
Numerical bar code system used to record product and price information.
Universalism
The ethical system stating that all people should uphold certain values that society needs to function.
Unsecured Bonds
Bonds backed only by the issuer's credit standing; almost always riskier than secured bonds. Also called Debentures.
Unsought Products
Products marketed to consumers who may not yet recognize a need for them.
Unsystematic Risk
A risk that affects at most a small number of assets. Also called Unique or Asset-specific Risk.
Upstream Management
Controlling part of the supply chain that involves raw materials, inbound logistics, and warehouse and storage facilities.
Upward Communication
Information that flows from the lower to higher levels in the organization's hierarchy.
Useful Life
Length of time an asset will be productively used in the operations of a business. Also called Service Life.
User
Individual or group that actually uses a business good or service.
Uses of Cash
A firm's activities in which cash is spent. Also called Applications of Cash.
Utilitarian Outcomes
Extent to which uses enhances the effectiveness of the job. The manager's behavior results in optimization of satisfaction of people inside and outside the organization. It results in the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Utilitarianism
An ethical system stating that the greatest good for the greatest number should be the overriding concern of decision makers.
Utility
Want-satisfying power of a good or service.
Valence
The value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it.
Validity
The degree to which a selection test predicts or correlates with job performance.
VALS
Segmentation system that divides consumers into eight psychographic categories: actualizers, fulfillers, believers, achievers, strivers, experiencers, makers, and strugglers.
Value Analysis
Systematic study of the components of a purchase to determine the most cost-effective approach.
Value Chain
The sequence of activities that flow from raw materials to the delivery of a product or service, with additional value created at each step.
Value of Bonds
Net amount at which bonds are reported on the balance sheet; equals the par value of the bonds less any unamortized discount or plus any unamortized premium. Also called Carrying Amount or Book Value.
Variance Analysis
Process of examining differences between actual and budgeted revenues or costs and describing them in terms of price and quantity differences.
Vendee
Buyer or purchaser of goods or services.
Vendor
Seller of goods or services.
Vendor Analysis
Assessment of supplier performance in areas such as price, back orders, timely delivery, and attention to special requests.
Venture Team
Associates from different areas of an organization who work together in developing new products.
Verdict
The decision of the factfinder in a case.
Vertical Analysis
Evaluation of each financial statement item or group of items in terms of a specific base amount.
Vertical Integration
The acquisition or development of new businesses that produce parts or components of the organization's product.
Vertical Marketing System (VMS)
Planned channel system designed to improve distribution efficiency and cost-effectiveness by integrating various functions throughout the distribution chain.
Veto
The power of the president to reject legislation passed by Congress, terminating the bill unless Congress votes by a 2/3 majority to override.
Vigilance
A process in which a decision maker carefully executes all stages of decision making.
Virtual Sales Team
Network of strategic partners, suppliers, and others who recommend a firm's goods or services.
Virtual Teams
Teams that are physically disbursed and communicate electronically more than face-to-face.
Virtue Ethics
A perspective that what is moral comes from what a mature person with "good" moral character would deem right.
Vision
A mental image of a possible and desirable future state of the organization.
VoIP
Voice over Internet protocol - a phone connection through a personal computer with any type of broadband Internet connection.
Voir Dire
The process of selecting a jury. Attorneys for the parties and the judge may inquire of prospective jurors whether they are biased or incapable of rendering a fair and impartial verdict.
Volume Variance
Difference between two dollar amounts of fixed overhead cost; one amount is the total budgeted overhead cost, and the other is the overhead cost allocated to products using the predetermined fixed overhead rate.
Voucher
Internal file used to store documents and information to control cash disbursements and to ensure that a transaction is properly authorized and recorded.
Voucher System
Procedures and approvals designed to control cash disbursements and acceptance of obligations.
Vroom Model
A situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership.
Wholesalers
Channel intermediary that takes title to goods it handles and then distributes these goods to retailers, other distributors, or B2B customers.
Wireless Technology
Technology that allows communications connections without cables or wires.
Withdrawal (CS)
Payment of cash or other assets from a proprietorship or partnership to its owner or owners.
Work Sheet
Spreadsheet used to draft an unadjusted trial balance, adjusting entries, adjusted trial balance, and financial statements.
Working Capital
Current assets minus current liabilities at a point in time.
Working Papers
Analyses and other informal reports prepared by accountants and managers when organizing information for formal reports and financial statements.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Organization that replaces GATT, overseeing GATT agreements, making binding decisions in mediating disputes, and reducing trade barriers.
Writ
An order from a government compelling someone to do a particular thing.
Writ of Certiorari
Formal notice from the United States Supreme Court that it will accept a case for review.