Group 1 in the periodic table (excluding hydrogen). the are very reactive metals
What are the alkaline earth metals?
Group 2 in the periodic table. The are somewhat reactive metals.
What are the Halogens?
They are group 17 in the periodic table. The are very reactive non-metals.
What are the noble gases?
They are group 18 in the periodic table. They are very unreactive gaseous non-metals.
When an atom gains or loses an electron is becomes charged and is called an ion.
What charge does an atom become if it gains electrons.
Becomes a negative ion.
What charge does an atom become if it loses electrons?
It becomes a positive ion?
What is a Cation?
A positive ion. many metals become cations because they lose electrons.
What is an Anion?
A negative ion. Many non-metal ions become anions because they gain electrons.
How do you figure out the charge on an atom when it becomes an ion?
There is a number the periodic table that has a + or - beside it that tells you the charge of the ion. For example Aluminum will lose 3 electrons and become an atom with a charge of 3+ (Al 3+). Look at the periodic table.
Some metals are multivalent, which means they can form ions in more than one way depending on the chemical reaction. For example Titanium (Ti) can form a Ti4+ ion or a Ti3+ ion.
What is a Bohr diagram?
A Bohr diagram is a diagram that shows the number of electrons in each shell surrounding the nucleus of an atom.
How many electrons can fit in the first 3 shells of a Bohr diagram?
2 electrons, 8 electrons, 8 electrons.
How can you use the periodic table to find out the number of electron shells that surround the nucleus of an atom?
The period number (row number) of an element equals the number of shells in the atom. For example Hydrogen is in row 1, so it has 1 shell. Sodium is in row 3 so it has 3 shells.
What is a stable octet?
When the outermost shell of an atom has 8 electrons. It is said to be stable because it does not need to gain