About 2500 years ago, a prince named Siddhartha Gautama began to question his sheltered, luxurious life in the palace. He left the palace and saw four sights: a sick man, an old man, a dead man and a monk. These sights are said to have shown him that even a prince cannot escape illness, suffering and death. The sight of the monk told Siddhartha to leave his life as a prince and become a wandering holy man, seeking the answers to questions like "Why must people suffer?" "What is the cause of suffering?" Siddartha spent many years doing many religious practices such as praying, meditating, and fasting until he finally understood the basic truths of life. This realization occurred after sitting under a Poplar-figtree in Bodh Gaya, India for many days, in deep meditation. He gained enlightenment, or nirvana, and was given the title of Buddha, which means Enlightened One. Right understanding and viewpoint (based on the Four Noble Truths).
Right values and attitude (compassion rather than selfishness).
Right speech (don't tell lies, avoid harsh, abusive speech, avoid gossip).
Right action (help others, live honestly, don't harm living things, take care of the environment).
Right work (do something useful, avoid jobs which harm others).
Right effort (encourage good, helpful thoughts, discourage unwholesome destructive thoughts).
Right mindfulness (be aware of what you feel, think and do).
Right meditation (calm mind, practice meditation which leads to nirvana).