Basic Concepts and Processes - Chapter 2

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Terms in this set (21)
ExcretionElimination of a drug from the body; effective excretion requires adequate functioning of the circulatory system and of the organs of excretion (kidneys, bowel, lungs, and skin)First-pass effectInitial metabolism of some oral drugs as they are carried from the intestine to the liver by the portal circulatory system prior to reaching the systemic circulation from distribution to site of actionHypersensitivityImmune-mediated reaction to a drugLoading doseDose larger than the regular prescribed daily dosage of a medication; used to attain therapeutic blood levelMaintenance doseQuantity of drug that is needed to keep blood levels and/or tissue levels at a steady state or constant levelNephrotoxicityToxic or damaging effect of a substance on the kidney; potentially serious because renal damage interferes with drug excretion, causing drug accumulation and increased adverse effectsPharmacodynamicsReactions between living systems and drugs; drug actions on target cells and the resulting alterations in cellular biochemical reactions and functionPharmacokineticsDrug movement through the body to reach sites of action, metabolism, and excretionProdrugsInitially inactive drugs that exert no pharmacological effect until they are metabolizedSerum drug levelLaboratory measurement of the amount of a drug in the blood at a particular timeSerum half-lifeTime required fro the serum concentration of a drug to decrease by 50%; also called elimination half-life