46 terms

Environmental Science for AP Climate and Biomes

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Which of the following is the best descrption of a region's climate?
the average temperature and precipitation over several decades
Which of the following would not have a significant effect on the climate of a region?
a single abnormally wet year due to El Nino
In which level of the atomsphere does weather occur?
troposphere
What is the importance of the ozone layer?
it absorbs incoming uv rays
What best describes the temperature of the atmosphere?
it decreases as you increase in altitude in the troposphere
Which of the following is not true about the sun's energy heating the Earth?
the sun's rays are more strongly reflected on the lower latitude regions
Which of the following is the best description of albedo?
the ability of an object to reflect light
What region of the earth does the sun hit at the most direct?
equator
What level of the atmosphere contains charged gas molecules that glow, producing what is known as the northern lights or Aurora borealis?
Thermosphere
Which of the following would best describe the observavtion that warm air is more humid than cool air?
warming air has a higher capactiy for water vapor than colder air
What happens to air as it rises?
the pressure decreases and it expands in volume
What factor is most closely related to adiabatic cooling and heating?
Air pressure
What is the overall direction of global air currents at the equator?
Air rises at the equator
What is the best explaination for the high amounts of rain that occur at the equator?
The warm air rises at the equator which condenses at a high attitude, leading to rain
What type of weather would you expect to find at the intertropical convergence zone ITCZ?
warm and rainy weather
At what latitude is the surface of the earth moving at the highest velocity?
90 N and S
Which of the following statements about the Coriolis Effect is incorrect?
Global winds are not affected by the Coriolis Effect
What is the cause of the differing seasons of the earth?
The tilt of the earth on its axis
The Coriolis Effect and prevailing winds contribute to the formation of gyres in the oceans. Which direction do these gyres flow in the Northern Hemisphere?
Clockwise
What is one major role that these gyres play in global climate?
Currents redistribute heat from the Equator to Northern latitude
What is a positive effect of upwelling?
Along the west coast of continents
As water freezes or evaporates, what happens to salinity of the remaining ocean water?
Salinity increase
What factors are used to classify a biome?
Average tempersture, Average precipitation, and Distinctive plants adapted to area
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
Tundra
Boreal forests tend to have a thick layer of organic material but the soil is poor in nutrients. What is the best explanation for this?
Low precipitation rates and cold temperatures slow decompostion
Which of the following are examples of wetlands?
Swamps, Marshes, and Bogs
Which of the following is not an ecological service provided by wetlands?
Heavily used for agriculture due to high nutrient content
Which of the following is the earth's most diverse biome?
Coral reefs
Which biome has plants with adaptations that prevent water loss, such as smaller leaves with few pores for gas exchange?
Subtropical desert, savanna and chaparral
Which of the following has some low-growing vegetation, but connot support trees because of a permanently frozen layer of soil?
Tundra
Tundra
treeless plains that are the coldest of all the biomes; occur in the arctic and Antarctica. Dominated by lichens, mosses, sedges, and dwarfed shrubs Characterized by extremely cold climate, permanently frozen ground (permafrost) low biotic diversity, simple vegetation structure, limitation of drainage, short season of growth and reproduction.
Tropical Rainforest
most diverse and hottest terrestrial biome, biome near the equator with warm climate wet weather and lush plant growth
Temperate Deciduous Forest
the biome characterized by warmer temperatures than the boreal forest and plenty of precipitation thats huge forests of broadleaf trees; covers regions in southeastern Canada, and eastern United States; biome humans live in
Temperate Rain Forest
occurs in North America, Australia, and New Zealand; mostly located in the Pacific Northwest (a maritime biome); cool, humid weather; abundant rainfall; mosses, lichens, and ferns; dominated by evergreen trees (e.g. Douglas Fir, Sitka Spruce); cool winters, mild summers; located north of most other rain forests; maintains a moderate temperature year round
Savannah Grassland
a grassland biome with scattered individual trees, large herbivores, and three distinct seasons based primarily on rainfall, maintained by occasional fires and drought
Taiga "Boreal"Forest
biome just south of the tundra; it has long, cold winters ans small amounts of precipitation; characterized by a northern coniferous forest composed of pine, fir, hemlock, and spruce tree and acidic, mineral-poor topsoils, a cool forest biome of conifers in the upper Northern Hemisphere
Temperate Grassland
a biome found in North America, Eurasia, South America and Africa. Characterized by nutrient-rich soil that supports many grass species, a region that has cold winters and rainfall that is intermediate between that of a forest and a desert; characterized by extensive grasses and few trees
Steppe Grassland
a temperate shrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers;
Desert "Hot"
a biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation; daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely; because of little rainfall that it supports only sparse and widely spaced vegetation or no vegetation at all
Desert "Cold"
Deserts the get below freezing for extended periods of time. Great example is the Great Basin Desert in the Western United States.
Shrubland (Chaparral)
Found along the California coast and the coast of the Mediterranean sea. Characterized by hot summers and mild, rainy winters. Dominated by fire-tolerant shrubs.
Savanna
A grassy plain in tropical and subtropical regions, with few trees.
Tropical Seasonal Forest
Semi-evergreen or partly deciduous forests tending toward open woodlands and grassy savannas dotted with scattered, drought-resistant tree species; distinct wet and dry season, hot year-round
Marine Biome
largest biome, most stable with little variation in temperature, provides most of earth's food and oxygen, divided into regions based on amount of light they receive
Transitional Aquatic Ecosystem
wetlands, estuary, salt-marshes
Freshwater Ecosystem
Lakes, ponds, and rivers