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29 terms

origins insertions and actions muscles head neck upper extremity

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Frontalis
o: epicranial aponeurosis(galea aponeurotica)
i: skin of eyebrow and nose
a:raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead, tenses and retracts scalp
genioglossus
o: medial surface of mandible near chin
i:body of tongue, hyoid bone
a:depresses and protracts tongue
geniohyoid
o: medial surface of mandible near chin
i: hyoid bone
a: depresses mandible or elevates larynx. Pulls hyoid bone anteriorly
masseter
o:zygomatic arch
i:mandiblular ramus(lateral side)
a:elevates mandible
medial pterygoid
o:medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone, maxilla, and palantine bone
i:medial surface of mandible near its angle
a: acts with the lateral pterygoid muscle to protrude mandible and to promote side-to-side gringding movements;synergist of temporalis and masseter muscles in elevation of the mandible.
mylohyoid
o:medial surface of the mandible
i: median connective tissue that attaches to hyoid bone
a: elevates floor of the mouth and depresses mandible
sternocleidomastoid
o: clavicle and manubrium
i:mastoid process
a:rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side
styloglossus
O: styloid process of temporal bone.
I: side and undersurface of tongue.
A: elevates tongue and draws it posteriorly (retraction).
stylohyoid
O: Styloid process
I: Body of hyoid bone
A: Elevates and retracts hyoid bone
temporalis
o: temporal bone
i: mandible;
a: closes jaw
zygomaticus major
O: Zygomatic bone
I: angle of mouth
a:Draws angle of mouth upward and laterally in laughing
biceps brachii
O:short head: coracoid of scapula
long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
I: *tuberosity of the radius
A: flex the elbow (humeroulnar joint)
supinate forearm (radioulnar joint)
flex shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
brachialis
o: humerus;
i: ulna;
a: elbow flexion
brachioradialis
o: lateral supracondylar ridge at distal end of humerus
i: base of styloid process of radius
a: synergist in forearm flexion stabilizes elbow during rapid flexion and extension
deltoid
o:latearl third of clavicle; acromion and spine of clavicle embraces insertion of trapezius
i:deltoid tuberosity of humerous
a:prime mover of arm abduction when all its fibers contract simultaneously
digastric
o;lower margin of mandible and mastoid process of temporal bone
i: by connective tissue loop to hyoid bone
a: open mouth and depress mandible
latissimus dorsi
o:indirect attachment via lumbodorsal fascia into spines of lower six thoracic vertebrae
i: spirals around teres major to insert in floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerous
a: prime mover of arm extension;powerful arm adductor; medially rotates arm@shoulder
platysma
o; fascia of chest (over pectoral muscles and deltoid)
i: lower margin of mandibel, and skin and muscle at corner of mouth
a: tenses skin of neck helps depress mandible pulls lower lip down and back
pectoralis major
o;sternal end of clavicle, sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6 & aponeurosis of external obliques
i: fibers converge to insert by a short tendon into inter tubercular sulcus & greater tubercle of humerus
a: prime mover of arm flexion; rotates arm medially;adducts arm
biceps femoris
O;ischial tuberosity & linea aspera of femur
I; head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia
A: Hip: extension, lateral rotation.
Knee: flexion
gastrocnemius
O:femoral condyles
I: calacaneus via calcaneal tendon
A: foot: plantar flexion, inversion
Knee: flexion
Gluteus Maximus
O: iliac crest, lateral surface of ilium, sacrum, coccyx,lumbodorsal fascia
I: iliotibial tract, gluteal tuberosity of femur
A: Hip: extension lateral rotation
gluteus medius
O: anterior iliac crest, lateral surface of ilium
I:greater trochanter of the femur
A: Hip: abduction, medial rotation
Gracilis
O-INFERIOR RAMIS OF THE PUBIS/
I- PROXIMAL MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE TIBIA/
A- ADDUCTS THE THIGH
rectus femoris
O; anterior inferior iliac spine, superior acetabular rim
I: tibial tuberosity
A: Knee: extension
Hip: flexion
sartorius
O:anterior superior iliac spine
I:Tibia : medial surface
A:Hip: flexion, lateral rotation
knee: flexion
Semimembranious
O:ischial tuberosity
I: Tibia medial condyle
A:Knee: flexion.
Hip: extension , medial rotation
soleus
O:head of fibula and shaft of tibia
I: calcaneous via calcaneal tendon (tendocalcaneous)
A:Foot: plantar flexion
Psoas Major
O-BODY AND TRANSVERSE PROCESS OF THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE/
I-LESSER TROCHANTER VIA ILIOPSOAS/
A- FLEXES THIGH WHEN BACK IS FIXED; FLEXES VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND PELVIS ON FEMUR AS IN SIT UP, THIGHS ARE FIXED.