Sociology Exam #2
Terms in this set (205)
an example of racial inequality and deviance; Trayvon Martin was a young man, unarmed, followed by George Zimmerman, used a stand-your-ground law to justify killing Trayvon who was unarmed
Prison population in 2011 in U.S.
Who is overrepresented among the incarcerated?
Blacks = 37.8%, Latinos = 22.8%
Why are minorities incarcerated?
More likely to stay in prison than get a plea deal, we treat people in criminal justice system who are guilty and rich better than poor and innocent
Effects of large prison population
reduces labor force,
skews data about unemployment,
decreases likelihood of stable employment following release
Cultures that societies create are built out of __________
Norms represent the ...
values of the group
When individuals and groups deviate from norms, ...
Ranges of deviance
chewing gum in the wrong place --> capital murder --> beyond (culturally contextualized)
Ex. of deviance
U.S. incarceration rates vs. World
much higher compared to other countries
Why are incarceration rates in the U.S. so high?
- Drug Laws
- More violent crimes committed in the U.S.
- People who commit nonviolent crimes in the rest of the world are less likely to receive prison time
Why are racial disparities so significant?
Different outcomes based on racial identities
Who are the deviants?
corporate world dominated by wealthy, white population
human activity that violates social norms
Examples of deviant behavior
nudity, bizarre clothing
Examples of crimes
speed limit, underage drinking
Space in between crime and deviance
murder and sexual assault
Whose rules or norms are being broken?
Each society has rules, most of the time made by the powerful in society --> benefit powerful in society
Example of issue of power
Nixon on marijuana and hard drugs to target hippies and black populations
Not all deviance is crime, ...
not all crime is deviant
Corporations, governments, organizations, and social groups can all take part in deviance
subcultures whose members hold values that differ substantially from those of the majority
response from society when someone breaks an important norm (can be positive or negative)
someone in company working out of their sector to complete task gets a raise
not taking a shower for a week --> not able to sit somewhere
legislation that bans capital murder
Degree of sanctions varies according to ...
importance and type of norm broken, culture
3 views of deviance
biological, psychological, sociological
Biological view of deviance
deviant behavior is genetic --> inherit biological material that makes us more likely to entertain/undertake deviant behavior
Psychological view of deviance
psychopaths have certain traits (less emotive, willing to take higher levels of risk)
Sociological view of deviance
locate deviant's within an individual's society
Social perspectives of deviance
functionalist, reinforcement, conflict, symbolic interactionist (all give diverse perspective)
Functionalist theories of deviance
Anomie: In modern societies norms have been lost but not replaced, leaving people without a center; Deviance and crime as normal and necessary, helps us understand bounds of communities
Robert K. Merton's Deviance Typology
functionalist theory, argues there are cultural goals in society, institutionalized means are ways of achieving this goal
rejects institutionalized means, accepts cultural goals
accepts institutionalized means and cultural goals
reject goals, accept means, ex: simply going to a job but not caring about being economically successful
rejects cultural goals and means (ex: being economically successful)
accepts on new cultural goals and takes on different institutionalized means
deviance seen as learned, even normalized behavior; we act based on perceived rewards and costs, which may be economic, social, etc; differential association and control theory
outcomes are based on differences in who we associate with
theory that compliance with social norms requires strong bonds between individuals and society
engagement with positive role models in community
if you believe something will make you successful, you will be concerned about it
how engaged you are in community
that you will be successful
Marxist theory that views society as a competition for limited resources indicating anger or dissatisfaction; involves a dominant and oppressed group, crime seen as political action intended to change power structure, why people commit crimes, individuals respond to inequities built into capitalism
Laws are tools of the powerful that reproduce inequality: protect powerful interests in society, political statements about existing social and power structures n society, criminality is challenge to those in power, individuals are reacting to inequalities that are forced on them through power structures
Critique of conflict theory
romantic approach (challenging an unjust power) can cause us to view crimes as political statement against power of state
Symbolic interactionist approaches
deviance is not found in act but rather in response, in label applied, internalize label and start acting like it
Ex. of labeling theory
people smoking weed labeled as potheads
How is crime reported?
UCR (Uniform Crime Report)
collection of every crime that a police officer files all reported to federal authorities and aggragated into a single data set, census, not all crimes are reported
NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey)
randomized survey that uses a sample to report crime rates in U.S., more likely to report crimes
Decrease in crime
decrease in exposure to lead in childhood, increase in abortion
Gender more likely to be perpetrators, victims, incarcerated
may lead to differential treatment with authorities, women less likely to be changed by a prosecutor, sentenced to shortened time by a judge, ties to children may prevent women from engaging in deviant acts
relative lack of social ties and attachments that characterize adulthood
social phenomenon that occurs that draws significant negative attention in society (ex. number of school shootings)
crime carried out by those in non manual labor or higher-status jobs; historically elusive, difficult to prosecute, oftentimes ignored; crimes are nonviolent but damaging to society; include embezzlement, various kinds of fraud, illegal sales
Those who perpetrate crimes are ...
How can crime be reduced?
Large # of people in prison for nonviolent offenses (3-strike laws)
Cost of imprisonment per year
Imprisonment is not a _______________ deterrent
U.S. has continued levels of support
Inequality in modern, industrialized societies
litter overt support for rigid systems of inequality
Remaining caste systems are ...
turning into class systems (ex. India)
From time of WWII in 1970s, class boundaries have been ____________
Why laws slowed immigration during expanding economy
instead of having to divide same pie, there was growing pie; softening of class boundary meant people could move between classes with greater ease
Interest of Karl Marx
class relations in capitalist societies
Class was determined by what?
one's relation to the means of production
Group membership determined __________ _____________.
What did Marx predict?
proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie, ending the reign of capitalism, classless society would emerge
Marx did not predict ...
emergence of middle class
For Max Weber, position in a stratification system was not based on economics alone: _____________________ was also significant.
What would Weber argue about a high-prestige career?
a lot of these jobs are challenging but people are willing to do them not because of financial award but bc they are recognized through social status
High prestige careers
firefighter, scientist, teacher, doctor, military officer, nurse, police officer, priest, farmer, engineer
What would Weber argue about low-prestige careers?
better compensated, status not necessarily tied to financial gain/economic standing
Who is Weber's multidimensional approach attractive to?
those who believe prestige and power can be independent of economics
Functionalist theorists attempt to understand what role inequality plays in ...
keeping society at equilibrium
Society needs most qualified people in most important roles --> in order for that to happen, we must ...
compensate people appropriately
Compensation inevitably creates ...
Davis and Moore argued stratification benefitted society by ensuring most important roles would be filled by ...
most talented and worthy people
Social class is mixture of ...
wealth, income, education, occupation
all assets individuals own (cash, savings, checking accounts, stocks, bonds, real estate, etc)
There is a greater ________ disparity than ___________ disparity between whites and minorities
_____________ affects housing values
red lines drawn around map where banks could not loan money
pushed overwhelmingly on populations of color even though they were expected to fail
Majority of wealth has been generated through policies that benefit
privileged white population
Most important way families pass on wealth from generation to generation
wages and salaries earned from paid occupations plus unearned interest from investments
Income distribution is (equal/unequal)
Income has grown for all groups, faster for ____________.
There is an ____________ between race and class
U.S. understands itself as a __________________ society
richest, 5%, > $331,000
$50,000 - $178,000
20%, $29,024 - $49,842
< $30,000, single parent income
marginalized/no access to economy
movement of people up or down the stratification system
_________ systems allow for more movement than ____________ systems
Intergenerational social mobility
upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents (ex. Liz Murray)
processes whereby parents pass down to their children a range of resources (who you know)
cultural advantages coming from a "good home" (what you know)
percentage of population living in poverty to any standard applied ($1-2 salary)
may have resources available, significantly less than those around, not enough to suffice
based on an income 3 times the cost of monthly groceries
Fight for 15
fast food workers fighting to get minimum wage of $15
Feminization of poverty
Because of social changes, including divorce and the increasing normalization of single parenting, there are more female-headed households today than throughout modern U.S. history
Ways to decrease feminization of poverty
Single biggest problem for elderly in economics
Why is healthcare a problem for the elderly?
disproportionate cost for them, need more health care, fixed incomes that can't adjust for change
Explanations for poverty
blaming victim, blaming the system
Blaming the victim (culture-of-poverty arguments ~ Oscar Lewis)
in particular forms of capitalism, people that live in poverty make decisions based on challenges of living in poverty that keep them there instead of breaking out of cycle
Blaming the system (social exclusion, structural arguments)
shaped by structures of the way society is organized, structures of economic opportunity within given society
Poverty and social problems
Social welfare systems
Lack of basic medical care
People turn to nonconventional means to make money
Is Judaism a religion or ethnicity or both?
Religion (can convert), ethnicity (passed down from mother), BOTH
distinct cultural norms and values of a social group
Characteristics of ethnic groups
shared history, religion and culture, kin or ancestry, sense of shared destiny, language
Ethnicity has become a __________
For nonwhites, opting out of ethnicity is ...
not a choice
an externally imposed system of social categorization and stratification
Categorical system imposed to ...
create hierarchy in society based off phenotypical characteristics
(T/F) No true biological races exist
Race is a _________ identity, not a __________ identity
The actual imposition of some racial schema on society
AA not able to vote, contracts where houses can't be signed to AA
blackballed - real estate agents losing their license for selling house to AA, agent shoes AA houses in AA neighborhood
form of prejudice or discrimination based on physical differences
biased ideas about a population
acting on prejuidce
Individual consciousness and behavior
old school racism, "I am better than you based off of phenotypical characteristics"
Ideologies of supremacy
ideas behind implementing policies or structural outcomes in society
when we see outcomes that are different for different individuals within the system
fixed and inflexible parameter applied to a group of people that may have a little bit of truth, over applied becomes stereotype
someone not guilty of social ills plaguing society but blamed for it (ex: recession of 2008 blamed on immigrants rather than Wall Street)
Racism dating back to European colonization
colonizers had Eurocentric attitudes of racial supremacy
centered on our own ethnicity, seeing other cultures/ethnicities are their values through lens of our own ethnicity
Latin America (Spaniards + indigenous races)
ex. classifying people by skull size
usually numerically larger group, not always
Example of dominant group
AA as statistical majority in D.C., but still thought of as minority in relation to access to power and resources
disadvantaged relative to dominant group, collective sense of identity, isolation or segregation, NOT a question of numerical distinction
usually has negative view, being forced to lose a part of you, forced element in which an individual becomes indistinguishable from host population
some may associate to lower socioeconomic class in urban area
originated by Jewish philosopher in 20th century, idea that we as a society are stronger for bringing together people of different backgrounds into a single fabric in U.S., creates space for people to retain identity
Advantages of segregation
living among coethnics who speak the same language
Disadvantages of segregation
Community is big enough that one doesn't have to engage with the rest of the population, not forced to learn another language, security buffer
more people moving from more places
increasingly seeing more people moving from more places and complexity built into system (ex. Mexico becoming a receiving country)
increasingly integrated as a global economy that we were not prior to the advent of modern technology, spread of capitalism linked countries historically graphically separate
women working in factories, need for nurses and home care
population living outside of their country of origin
Example of diaspora
Jews (holocaust), Armenians (genocide from Turkey), Greeks (historical violence)
Race in U.S. History - SLAVERY
African were brought as slaves in huge numbers until 1860, responses varied from rebellion, passivity, cultural development, hostility, civil war was formal end
Race in U.S. History - IMMIGRATION
> 30 mill immigrants came to U.S. voluntarily, mostly from Europe, loopholes have changed how immigration works
Race in U.S. History - CIVIL RIGHTS
Until 1960s, AA had few legal rights or protections (Civil Rights Act, Brown vs. Board of Education, Rosa Parks, MLK
Latinos/Hispanics are not a single, unified group aside from ..
4 Main Groups of Latinos
Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorians, Cuban Americans
capital of Latinos
Asians in U.S.
don't comprise of single group; largest groups = Chinese, Japanese, filipinos
In what areas is the U.S. a racially stratified society?
educational attainment, income, residence, wealth
In what areas can we also see racial inequality?
political representation, residential segregation, criminal justice system, health & wellness
Ethnicities that have done well
white ethnics, asian Americans, cubans
Ethnicities that have not fared well
african Americans, native Americans, Puerto ricans
Why are there such significant gaps in groups' success?
voluntary immigration U.S. forced minority status, type & degree of discrimination faced, ability to blend into "mainstream," affinity of group culture to U.S. culture & values
Which groups do best?
groups who came to country voluntarily
Ex. of type of discrimination faced
slavery of AA vs. racism against Chinese & Japanese
Ex. of blending into mainstream
Jews from Eastern Europe look like everyone else
Ex. of affinity to U.S. culture
having strong educational/work ethic matches with American Protestant work ethic
enacting of policies and decisions on the part of officials within political apparatus
Most modern governments are run by who?
officials who do not inherit positions of power but are elected or appointed on qualifications
the means by which power is employed to influence the nature and content of governmental activities
the system of production and exchange that provides the material needs of individuals living in a given society
ability to impose one's beliefs or interests upon others, even in the face of resistance (getting what we want and making sure someone else doesn't get what they want)
the legitimate use of power (ex. law enforcement and military)
Characteristics of a state
modern form of state, similar characteristics of a state, shared sense of peoplehood, nationalism, legal sovereignty and citizenship
nation-states don't interfere with internal workings of other nation-states (Treaty of Westphalia & Socrates)
quasi-religious identification and loyalty to the nation, sometimes made up of local nationalisms
Ex. of sub-national identity in conflict with larger state
French Canada, Basque in Spain
rights and responsibilities associated with membership in group
3 Groups of Rights
civil, political, social
associated with legal system; Contracts, right to sell labor, freedom of speech and religion, right to own property, legally marry, and right to equal justice before the law
Right to participate in elections, run for office, register to vote
right to enjoy a minimum standard of welfare and economic security, access to healthcare, unemployment benefits, poverty alleviation programs, still contested
Rule by the people
Types of democracy
participatory, liberal, constitutional
all come together in a single space and vote
population votes on particular issues
belief that there are limitations on state power that individual system have rights imbued within them beyond which the state cannot go
Figure-head who is a monarch who inherits it as their birthright but has relatively little political power
system of one-party rule, control is of both political and economic systems (top-down)
End of communism (year)
Reason for rise of democracy
aligns well with capitalism, and capitalism has been more successful that communism economically; globalization has led to imperative for knowledge
With increasing technologies and spread of knowledge, governmental control __________
______________ is seen as democratizing force
Why is voter participation low?
no compulsory registration or voting, registration required early, two-party system leaves voters disaffecting, full slate can be overwhelming
have significant advantage in elections, use connections to advantage