42 terms

Unit 3: Cellular Reproduction

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asexual reproduction
process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
binary fission
A process in which a cell replicates its DNA and then divides in half to produce two identical cells (in prokaryotes)
cell cycle
series if events ub which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
cell plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
chromosome
threadlike structure of DNA and protein that contains genetic information; in eukaryotes, chromosomes are found in the nucleus; in prokaryotes, they are found in the cytoplasm
cleavage
the act or state of splitting or dividing of a cell, particularly during telophase of (animal) cell division
cleavage furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
DNA
genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
gamete
sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell
haploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of genes
genetic variation
The variety of different types of genes in a species or population.
homologous
term used to refer to chromosomes in which one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent
meiosis
process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
mitosis
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
nucleus
in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
independent assortment
one of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
prokaryote
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
sexual reproduction
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
spore
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating
prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
metaphase
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
anaphase
chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
telophase
distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin, cell forms cleavage furrow
prophase 1
in meiosis, chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The homologous chromosomes line up with each other and form pairs. This is where crossing-over takes place
anaphase 1
homologous chromosomes separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell
metaphase 1
Paired homologous chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
telophase 1
2 daughter cells are formed, each daughter cell contains only one chromosome of the homologous pair (haploid).
prophase 2
In two new daughter cells (second stage of meiosis), the duplicated chromosomes and spindle fibers reappear in each new cell.
metaphase 2
In second stage of meiosis, chromosomes line up in the middle
anaphase 2
In second stage of meiosis, sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
telophase 2
A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes and cytokinesis occurs, producing four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes (gametes)
centrioles
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
parent cell
original cell before cell division
daughter cell
the two new cells that result from mitosis/meiosis and cytokinesis
somatic cell
any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells (body cells)
sister chromatids
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
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