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common fallacies test
Terms in this set (45)
begging the question
a circular argument in which the conclusion is included as the reason for itself
an argument whose claims, reasons, or warrants don't connect logically
appeal to tradition
assumes that something old is automatically better than something new
fallacy of composition
assuming that what is true of the part is automatically true of the whole
Appeal to Nature
the argument that something is good or valid because it is "natural" or from nature in some way
texas sharp shooter
Ignoring the differences while focusing on the similarities
Fallacy of Division
Assuming that what is true of the whole is true for the parts.
genetic fallacy (Guilt by association)
a conclusion made based solely on someones history
Equivocation/ ambiguity Fallacy
when a key word or phrase in an argument is used with more than one meaning
instead of dealing with the actual issue, it attacks a weaker version of argument
Look who's talking(tu quoque)
A fallacy that is committed when someone denies a claim because they believe the speaker who is making the claim is hypocritical.
arguing for a position because of its popularity
something that draws attention away from the main issue
appeal to authority
Appeals to an authority to support a position, idea, argument, or course of action
appeal to emotion
manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
considering only two extremes when there are other possibilities
A question that is biased because it contains a built-in assumption
Personal Attack (Ad Hominem)
tries to divert attention from the facts of an argument by attacking the motives or character of the person making the argument
false cause (causation does not equal correlation)
a fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second
burden of proof
the obligation to present evidence to support one's claim
using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound reasoning or compelling evidence
No True Scotsman
Making what could be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws of an argument.
EXAMPLE OF begging the question
-My dog is the best because he's better than yours
-the internet is always right because the internet says so
EXAMPLE OF Non Sequitur
-My mom loves the movie, so she hates the book
-My sister loves cats, so she hates dogs
EXAMPLE OF appeal to tradition
-well, they always have done it like this, so we need to keep doing it that way
EXAMPLE OF fallacy of composition
-"I met a nice Canadian. This means all Canadians are nice"
EXAMPLE OF fallacy of division
-5 kids in second grade say they love ice-cream. Therefore, all second graders like ice-cream
EXAMPLE OF appeal to nature
-"this product has all natural products, which means it's good for you"
EXAMPLE OF genetic fallacy
-because it was made in china, it must be cheap
-the nazis drove Volkswagens. If you drive one, you're a nazi
EXAMPLE OF equivocation/ambiguity
-FINE FOR PARKING
-"im hungry"..."hello hungry"
EXAMPLE OF straw man
person 1: I like the rain
person 2: yes, but if it was never sunny out, people would lack vitamin D. you want everyone to get sick
EXAMPLE OF look who's talking
-My evidence may be invalid, but so if yours
-Hurry up and finish your homework. I need to copy it!
Example of Bandwagon
The Packers won the Super Bowl and now everyone likes the Packers.
EXAMPLE OF red herring
Grading this exam on a curve would be the most fair thing to do. After all, classes go more smoothly when the students and the professor are getting along well.
EXAMPLE OF appeal to authority
-This famous person said its good...SO IT MUST BE GREAT
EXAMPLE OF appeal to emotion
-please donate and help the elephants
EXAMPLE OF slippery slope
-if you don't bring a pencil to school, you'll fail, not make any money, be poor, won't be able to pay for insurance, and die
EXAMPLE OF no true Scotts man
person 1: if you live in florida, you can only like the dolphone
person 2: I am from florida and I like the patriots
person 1: well, only a true floridan likes the dolphins
EXAMPLE OF false dichotomy
-"if you can't go to this party with me, you might as well not go to any"
EXAMPLE OF loaded question
-"does your girlfriend know you cheated on her"
EXAMPLE OF personal attack
-"youre wrong because you're ugly"
EXAMPLE OF false cause
-Jane took Advil before her test. She got an A on her test. Taking an Advil before your test will give you an A
EXAMPLE OF burden of proof
-You can't prove aliens exist, which means then do
EXAMPLE OF Anecdotal
-I must buy this anti aging cream, becky says its effective!
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