Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Chronic Disease Test 2
Terms in this set (70)
Most Americans get the recommended 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
Which of the following is the most significant source of calorie intake in the diet of most Americans?
Supplements are usually a good way to lower risk of certain disease conditions?
At the lowest concentration, which part of the apple was shown in research to reduce cancer cell spreading?
Identify at least 4 sources of free radical exposure.
Approximately how many grams of trans fat could a person consume and not increase their risk of heart disease?
About how many grams of trans fat could be in 3 servings of food that is labeled as trans fat free?
Which type of study places study volunteers by random assignment into groups where one group receives a treatment and the other does not?
Randomized Clinical Trial Study
Which type of study matches people with disease with people without disease who share similar characteristics like gender, age, and ethnicity and then determines which differences may contribute to disease?
How much could a person's risk of heart attack go down if they were able to drop their diastolic blood pressure 10 points?
20% - 30%
What are the four characteristic risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome?
presence of obesity from abdominal fat
high blood cholesterol
high blood pressure
Which Body Mass Index category is considered overweight or moderate risk?
Which blood pressure category is considered high for both systolic and (diastolic) pressure?
Heart Disease has been the leading cause of death among Americans since 1900 (except 1918). What was the leading cause of death in 1918?
CVD death rates are apparently going down even though incidence and prevalence rates are relatively unchanged.
Which risk factor has the greatest potential for reducing risk of heart disease?
If all forms of major CVD were eliminated, total life expectancy would increase nearly ___ years. If all forms of cancer were eliminated, the increase is just ___ years.
What percent decrease in risk for heart disease could be expected if a person decreased their total cholesterol 10%? (be specific in your answer)
20-30% decrease in risk for heart disease by decreasing the total cholesterol 10%.
CVD and CHD are the same thing.
A diet characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruit, legumes, whole grains, fish, and poultry is commonly termed a
According to some research, the more food a person is served the more they tend to eat.
According to the results of the study ("Exercise Capacity and Mortality Among Men Referred for Exercise Testing"), for every 1 MET increase in exercise capacity there was a _____ % increase in survival.
According to the results of the study ("Exercise Capacity and Mortality Among Men Referred for Exercise Testing"), normal subjects who had the lowest exercise capacity had a relative risk for all cause mortality of 4.5. What percent increase in risk would this be?
350% higher risk
In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) what were at least 3 of the 5 components of a low-risk profile?
Not current smoker
BMI under 25
1/2 drink of alcohol per day
In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), population attributable risk for coronary disease went from 64% for women who had 4 low-risk factors to 82% for women who had 5 low-risk factors. What additional risk factor was thought to contribute to the increase in population attributable risk?
When studied, which drink was most effective in inhibiting atherosclerosis and improving lipids when polyphenol dose was normalized?
The French have low coronary heart disease mortality with high fat consumption; this epidemiological anomaly is known as the __________________
What is the tumor classification for cancer that begins in the skin or tissues that line or cover internal organs?
The lifetime risk for developing cancer is greater for women than men.
Which disease contributes to more years of life lost?
Which is the most common (highest prevalence) cancer in women?
What term describes a malignant cancer initiating the process of producing its own blood supply?
Which is the most common (highest prevalence) cancer in men?
What is the tumor classification for cancer that begins in bone, muscle, or other connective tissue?
What is it called when malignant tumor migrates to a distant site from its origin?
Which is the most lethal cancer for men and women?
Which cancer is most affected (in a beneficial way) by physical activity?
You can trust the media and advertising regarding milk consumption and health because there is only supporting research on milk and good health.
There appears to be a specific dietary pattern for reducing diabetes risk and another, different, specific dietary pattern for reducing cardiovascular disease risk.
The Prudent dietary pattern has been linked to decreased risk of CVD but not to increased risk of diabetes.
Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease cancer risk similar to the reduction in risk seen for cardiovascular disease
Fish, poultry, and eggs can be part of a healthy dietary pattern.
One study indicated that the prevalence of CHD would increase 5%-16% by 2035 due to the childhood obesity epidemic. If this happens how many more cases of CHD would be expected?
more than one hundred thousand cases
What could be the cause of a shortened life expectancy by mid-century?
Even though diabetes in children is not considered "high" diabetes has increased by what factor in the past 2 decades?
more than ten
What percentile for BMI would classify a child or adolescent as obese?
BMI above the 95th percentile
The initial development of obesity comes with few side effects and overt clinical symptoms.
What is the term used to describe the increased risk of obesity in offspring through non-genetic factors?
Education could be a significant factor in preventing and treating obesity
Of all the obesity-related morbidities which has the most pronounced 10-year risk?
Are men or women most at risk of obesity-related morbidities with increasing BMI?
Studies that have used nutrition and exercise programs to lower health risks such as blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes have also exhibited what "healthy lifestyle side effect"?
From a calorie basis we eat less fat and from a percentage basis we eat more fat than in times past for the US population?
What variable accounts for most of the variance in basal metabolic rate?
Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
The cause of the entire obesity epidemic can be attributed to consuming more calories than expending.
Genetics can account for nearly all of the increasing prevalence of obesity in the US.
Which variable in the energy balance equation is related to energy expenditure?
Basal Metabolic Rate
Leisure-time sedentariness has been linked to a calorie expenditure deficit of 100-200 kcal/day and can be attributed to what?
the availability and volitional use of persuasive mechanization
Which produces the best outcomes for weight loss?
diest and exercise combined
One factor related to dietary over-consumption has been the increase in portion sizes over time.
The most common approach to weight loss is
eat fewer calories
What is the term that Kelly Brownell of Yale University uses to describe the pervasive problem of over consumption and sedentary lifestyle?
toxic food environment
Which nutrient type has the highest priority for oxidation?
Which nutrient type has the lowest priority for oxidation?
It is easy to lose weight because all you have to do is consume fewer calories than you expend
Overconsumption of both fat and carbohydrate results in excess calories being stored as fat?
Most weight loss programs are successful at both promoting weight loss and maintaining weight loss
Excess carbohydrate consumption promotes greater fat storage than excess fat consumption
Which overconsumption category reduced fat oxidation the most?
There was no difference in weight loss maintenance between lower compared to higher exercise groups
Sets found in the same folder
Chronic Disease Epidemiology
chronic disease exam 1 review
EXSC 387 Hager
EXSC 387 QUIZZES TEST 1
Sets with similar terms
Chronic disease prevention exam 2
EXSC 387 Exam 2
EXSC 387 Midterm 2
Clinical Nutrition: Exam 3
Other Quizlet sets
Section 9.3 - The Process of Photosynthesis
Assessment Concepts in Communication Disorders
Health Promotion & Nutrition