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PSY Ch. 8 - American Pioneers: James, Hall, Calkins, and Thorndike
Terms in this set (38)
(1842-1910) A Harvard professor who established the first psychology laboratory in America and created an intellectual climate receptive to the new field with his 1890 textbook, "The Principles of Psychology". His work stressed the usefulness of psychological ideas, consistent with a philosophical view he called pragmatism.
Made psychology fun and interesting to everyone
James' Early Life; Influences
-Born in 1842 in NYC; oldest in a wealthy family
-Father wanted the best education for all 5 children
-As a teen had interests and talent in art and drawing
-Attended Harvard medical school
-Went to Germany and discovered Wundt's work
-At 30 he had never had a job and lived with his parents
-Shortly after, he accepted a teaching position at Harvard and then blossomed
-Made PSY classes student-centered and relevant; brought passion and excitement (vs. boring Wundt)
James was influenced by...
Louis Agassiz, Charles Renouvier, and Alexander Bain
(1807-1873) An eminent Harvard biologist and America's most outspoken critic of Darwin's Origin of Species. Did field biology in Brazil together.
(1815-1903) A French philosopher whose writings about free will influenced William James. He came at a time of doubt and uncertainty.
(1818-1903) A Scottish philosopher/psychologist; the first to write psychology textbooks that integrated neural physiology and psychology in the mid-1800s. Influenced James with his writings on habit.
The Principles of Psychology
James' 1890 comprehensive textbook of psychology. Quickly became a leading English-language psychology text. Popular not just in schools, but on the street. Collection of personal reflections on PSY.
The Stream of Consciousness
James' term for the streamlike, fluid, and continuous quality of thought that makes it impervious to atomistic or reductionistic analysis.
-James emphasized the importance of habit, especially good habits, for society to function
-ALso talked about how hard it is to break a habit
-Encouraged his students to start and maintain good habits
-Does free will exist? A question plagued James
-Although important personally, for Science - no free will, but determinism
(1834-1900) Danish physiologist who proposed a view of emotion similar to that of James and at about the same time
James-Lange theory of emotion
Proposed independently by WIlliam James and Carl Lange hypothesizing that emotion is a consequence, rather than a cause, of the bodily changes associated with it. The body reacts/changes first.
James-Lange theory of emotion
Event --> Arousal --> Interpretation --> Emotion
(1863-1916) German industrial psychologist and former student of Wundt, brought to Harvard by James in 1892 to direct Harvard psychological laboratory. Munsterberg becane well known in the US for his development and promotion of applied psychology.
Charles S. Sanders Peirce
(1839-1914) American philosopher and mathematician who was a colleague of James and wrote on semiotics, pragmatism, and symbolic logic. Knowledge can never be certain.
Charles S. Sanders Peirce said...
Knowledge can never be certain. Ideas work with varying degrees of effectiveness. All adaptations are subject to development/evolution. Sounds like Descartes or Darwin.
Term originated by Peirce but adopted by James to denote the evaluation of ideas relativistically, according to their usefulness in varying situations; an approach that eventually became a hallmark of James' general philosophy.
Father of Modern Psychology
Free will + determinism
The Varieties of Religious Experience
Publication containing James' 1901 and 1902 U of Edinuburgh Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion. A classic in the contemntemporary field of the psychology of religion
G. Stanley Hall
(1844-1924) Studued with James and was the first American to earn a Ph.D. based on reaserch in ecperimental psychology. Went on to found many important institutions, including American Psychological Association and numerous journals. Also became a leader in child study and developmental psychology and popularzed the term adolescence.
The idea that the stages oof each person's intellectual, emotional, and psychological dvlpt. pass through the same stages as our pre-human ancestors as they developed into the humans of today
Francis Cecil Sumner
(1895-1954) Hall's last PhD student and the first African American to receive a doctorate in psychology, which he was awarded at Clark Univversity in 1920
Mamie Phipps Clark and Kenneth B. Clark
Well-known African American psychologists who studied with Francis Cecil Sumner and conducted psychological studies of the effects of race and racial prejudice on personality development. Their studies contributed to the Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown vs. Board of Education to make the segregation of public schools by race illegal in the US.
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1863-1930) One of first women to overcome gender discrimination and establish a career in psychology. Student of James, she developed the paired-associated technique for studying memory, as well as an influential system of self-psychology. Went on to become president of American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association.
Edmund C. Sanford
A psychologist at Clark U and expert on experimental apparatus who advised Calking on how to equip her psychology lab at Wellesley College
technique developed by Calkins to studdy associative learning and memory
Position developed and promoted by Calkins, that the conscious self should be the subject matter of psychology. In her system, and in contrast to behaviorism, the self was an active, guiding, and purposive agency present in all acts of consciousness. Preceeded work in Personality by Gordon Allport.
Psychologist and author of acclaimed book "Seven Ppsychologies" which was based on a popular course she taught on schools and systems of psychology
Edward Lee Thorndike
American comparative psychologist. Studied with James and went on to become USAs best known psychologist after James' death. Famous for studies of trial and error learnin with law of affect, and his studies with Woodworth on transfer training
Law of Effect
when certain responses are followed by pleasure, they are straightened, while responses followed by annoyance or pain tend to be "stamped out."
Trial and error Learning
Thorndike's term for learning that occurs as a result of random trial and error behavior that is occasionally successful and gradually becomes more precise
Robert Sessions Woodworth
American student of both James and Cattell who investigated the transfer of training theory with Edward Thorndike
Transfer of training
Notion that positive effect of instruction and exercise in one discipline of study can be transferred to other areas of mental function; disconfirmed by the experiments of Thorndike and Woodworth
Loosely defined movement in American psychology that grew out of Darwinian thinking and focused attention on utility and purpose of behavior
James Rowland Angell
American functionalist who, along with Carr and Dewey, was a leader in this field at the U of Chicago
Harvey Carr and John Dewey
-Were face of American PSY and functionalist school along with Thorndike
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