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Ch. 6 -Concepts of Integrated Training.
Terms in this set (85)
The superset system
Which of the following uses two exercises performed in rapid succession of one another for resistance training?
Low back pain
is a primary cause of musculoskeletal degeneration in the adult population, affecting nearly 80 percent of all adults.
The principle of specificity
The _____ states that the body will particularly adapt to the demands placed on it.
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension is known as _____.
exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
The rate of force production relates to the ability of muscles to:
Maintenance of _____ is an integrated process requiring optimal muscular balance, joint dynamics, and neuromuscular efficiency using visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive inputs.
_____ is designed to increase joint range of motion (ROM), improve muscle imbalances, and correct altered joint motion.
Heart rate reserve (HRR) method
Which method, also known as the Karvonen method, is used for establishing training intensity based on the difference between a client's predicted maximal heart rate and his or her resting heart rate?
Increase in lean muscle mass
A client experiences a(n) _____ as a result of the OPT model training.
The general adaptation syndrome
How a human body responds and adjusts to stress is referred to as _____.
Flexibility exercises in which agonists move a limb through a full range of motion, allowing the antagonists to stretch.
The components that specify how each exercise is to be performed.
The second stage of the GAS in which physiological changes take place
in order to meet the demands of the newly imposed stress.
The ability to maintain center of gravity over a changing base of support while changing direction at various speeds.
The first stage of the GAS; the initial phase of response to a new stimuli within the human movement system.
The second phase of the integrated performance paradigm requiring an isometric muscle contraction.
The point during high-intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominates; also called the lactate threshold.
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle
Ability to maintain the body's center of gravity within its base of support.
A series of exercises performed in order to ensure a full-body resistance
training session combined with cardiorespiratory exercise.
Flexibility training that is applied with the goal of improving muscle imbalances and correcting altered joint mechanics.
Ability to maintain equilibrium through the intended path of motion when external forces are present.
Multiplanar extensibility with optimal neuromuscular control through a full range of motion.
The third stage of GAS in which stress continues beyond the body's ability to adapt, leading to potential physiological and structural breakdown
The number of activation signals sent to a single motor unit in 1 second.
Integrated, multiplanar movement that involves acceleration, stabilization, and deceleration.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
1) How the kinetic chain responds and adapts to imposed demands. (2) How the body responds and adapts to stress.
Heart rate reserve (HRR) method
A method of establishing training intensity based on the difference between a client's predicted maximal heart rate and his or her resting heart rate.
The ability or tendency of an organism or a cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.
Integrated performance paradigm (stretch-shortening cycle)
A forceful cycle of muscle contraction that involves eccentric loading of the muscle, isometric muscle contraction, and concentric muscle contraction.
A comprehensive training approach that combines all the components necessary to help a client achieve optimum performance.
Inter muscular Coordination
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow all muscles to work together with proper activation and timing.
Training that alternates between intense exertion and periods of rest or lighter exertion.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow optimal levels of motor unit recruitment and synchronization within a muscle.
Ability to prepare, maintain, anticipate, and restore stability at each joint.
he maximum force a muscle can produce in a single voluntary effort,
regardless of the rate of force production.
(1) The specific muscular requirements using different weights and movements that are performed to increase strength or endurance in certain body parts. (2) The weights and movements placed on the body.
Energy demand placed on the body.
One motor neuron and the muscle fibers it connects (innervates) with
Motor unit recruitment
The activation of motor units in a successive manner to produce more strength.
Motor unit synchronization
The simultaneous recruitment of multiple motor units resulting in more muscle tissue contracting at the same time.
The specific muscular contractions using different speeds and patterns that are performed to increase neuromuscular efficiency.
States that in order to create physiological changes an exercise stimulus must be applied at an intensity greater than the body is accustomed to receiving.
Overtraining Syndrome (STS)
Excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training, resulting in fatigue; also caused by a lack of proper rest and recovery.
A disturbance of equilibrium; shaking.
Ability to prepare, maintain, anticipate, and restore stability of the entire
human movement system.
The ability to produce a large amount of force in a short amount of time.
Principle of variation
Rationale for challenging the kinetic chain with a wide variety of exercises and stimuli.
Proprioceptively enriched environments
Unstable, yet controllable environments
The ability to react to a stimulus with an appropriate muscular response without
Rate of force production
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.
Rating of perceived exertion
A technique used to express or validate how hard a client feels he or she is working during exercise.
Exercises that use quick, powerful movements involving an eccentric contraction immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction.
One complete movement of a single exercise.
Resting heart rate (RHR)
The number of contractions of the heart occurring in 1 minute
while the body is at rest.
A complex interaction involving the muscular system, PNS, and CNS to obtain balance or postural control.
The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret information to anticipate and execute the proper motor response.
A group of consecutive repetitions.
Specific adaptation to imposed demands (SAID) principle
States that the type of
exercise stimulus placed on the body will determine the expected physiological outcome.
The straight-ahead velocity of an individual.
Ability to maintain equilibrium in place with no external forces.
bility of the neuromuscular system to provide internal tension and exert force
against external resistance.
The distance covered with each stride.
The number of strides taken in a given amount of time (or distance).
Ventilatory threshold (Tvent)
The point during graded exercise at which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominately aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production.
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
Integrated training is the foundation for successful program design. This chapter will take the core scientific principles of biomechanics, kinesiology, and the Human Movement System, and bring them all together to further develop the scientific rationale behind integrating multiple forms of training to enhance functional movement. Early forms of exercise focused strictly on lifting weights in single planes of motion, such a dumbbell curl or chest press. Whereas these types of exercises do still have a role in attaining certain fitness goals, significant research has shown the necessity for training the entire body, using unstable—yet controlled—conditions to enhance proprioception, with multiple joint movements and muscle actions, in all three planes of motion. Since we live in a three-dimensional world, fitness programs need to dynamically shift to meet the differing needs of individuals in a safe and effective manner. To meet this need, NASM developed the Optimum Performance Training (OPT) model. It is a process of exercise programming that systematically progresses any client to any goal.
Modes of Training
Integrated training is comprised of 7 individual modes of training, utilized appropriately and dynamically to allow clients to achieve their fitness goals in a safe and effective manner. The individual components are: flexibility, cardiorespiratory, core, balance, reactive, speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ), and resistance training.
Scientific Principles of Exercise
A number of scientific principles govern the effectiveness of integrated training and how the body reacts and develops based on the stresses that are placed on it. A robust knowledge of these principles will allow for a deeper understanding of the exercise application and program design concepts to follow
Reasons to utilize integrated fitness training
First and foremost, integrated training is a comprehensive way to ensure a client's safety and health, both in and out of the gym. Due to a number of lifestyle variables, low back pain and knee injuries affect a large portion of the population. By properly controlling and altering the assorted acute variables associated with the different modes of integrated training, programs can be designed to reduce the probability of these common afflictions occurring
The OPT Model
The OPT model was designed for a society that has more structural imbalances and susceptibility to injury than ever before. It takes the scientific principles and modes of integrated training, and structures them within a program design methodology that can take individuals of any fitness level and progress them toward any fitness goal.
The importance of flexibility
Flexibility is the normal extensibility of all soft tissue that allows for optimal range of motion. The functions and terminology surrounding flexibility, specifically the mechanoreceptors and the concept of autogenic inhibition, should be well understood in order to apply flexibility improvement techniques with clients.
The integrate flexibility continuum
The flexibility continuum consists of three stages: corrective, active, and functional flexibility. The fitness level of a client and where he or she may be within the OPT model will determine the individual techniques to implement for flexibility improvement.
There are a number of methods available for determining an individual's cardiorespiratory fitness in order to prescribe the correct level of exercise intensity. It is important to understand these methods, as well as the corresponding equations for calculating both the maximum and the desired training heart rates.
Interval and zone training
An increased workload will cause fatigue and, with the proper recovery, eventually yield cardiorespiratory improvements. There are three zones in which a person can train in relation to the heart rate that is maintained. It is important to cycle between these zones, known as interval training, to allow for optimal improvements while balancing proper recovery for the body.
The lumbo-pelvic-hip-complex is essentially core of the body. As the name states, it is the interworking relationship between the soft tissues surrounding the bones of the lumbar spine, hips, and pelvis.
Activating the Core
Activating the core is essential for any form of resistance training and exercise. Since the core is the main stabilizing area of the body as a whole, methods for activating the core musculature during all functional movements allows for protection of the spine and proper transference of forces throughout the body.
The importance and science of balance
Integrated balance training is a systematic and progressive training process designed to develop neuromuscular efficiency. By training in environments that are unstable but controlled, one can teach the body how to recruit the right muscle, at the right time, with the right amount of force. Increased levels of intramuscular coordination are essential for everyday quality of life. Whether running, climbing, participating in sport, or simply walking, balance is required to execute the desired task.
The importance and science of reactive balance
Our bodies need the ability to react and dynamically stabilize in the face of rapid changes in the environment around us. Without proper reactive abilities, something as simple as stepping off a curb can lead to injury. Reactive training works to improve motor learning and neuromuscular efficiency by requiring the neuromuscular system to increase the rate of force production, motor unit recruitment, and firing frequency, and to enhance motor unit synchronization.
The importance and science of SAQ
Performance training incorporates speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ) training to prepare athletes for the demands of their sport. This type of training can also add a component of fun to a client's routine while helping to burn additional calories. The goal of progressive SAQ training is to develop the adaptations of increased speed, agility, and quickness to be performed at speeds that are functional and applicable to movements experienced during everyday life.
The anatomy and function of muscles
The makeup of muscle tissues, and the ways the individual components of muscles interact, are highly important concepts for the fitness professional to recognize. This extends to the interaction between the nervous system and the muscles in order understand how our bodies perform the functional tasks required of them.
There are four primary adaptations related to resistance training: stabilization endurance, strength, hypertrophy, and power. They are the root principles behind the various levels of the OPT model, and must be well understood to correctly train clients in the safest and most efficient manner possible.
Programming methods for strength training
Depending on the goals of the individual, numerous training systems can be implemented in the design of an exercise regimen. Certain systems are more beneficial for certain resistance training adaptations, so it is essential to understand and integrate the correct ones for clients to best achieve their goals.
Integrated training is the core of the OPT model and progressive program design. As the information presented in this chapter is interwoven throughout every aspect of OPT model, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of all concepts and terminology involved. Furthermore, one should be able to critically integrate that knowledge with the exercise science and program design concepts presented throughout the entire CPT program.
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