The Treaty of Versailles
Refused to allow either defeated German or Communist Russia to participate in peace conference negotiations, forced Germany to sign a war-guilt clause that was used to justify imposing large war reparations payments; changed map of Europe, created league of nations, left legacy of bitterness. Jan 10,1920
A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule.
The Nazi Party
The political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Adolf Hitler in 1933
'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
The Munich Conference
- Hitler took Austria and Czechoslovaki, Hitler broke the Treaty of Versailles in appeasement...where Chamberlin had said something along the lines of "I have secured peace in our time" as he waved a peace of paper (famous photo).
The NON-aggression Pact
This treaty stated the Germany would not attack the USSR and the USSR would not attack Germany. The pact freed Hitler to use force on Poland.
A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens. (like a dictator)
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare including intial strikes followed by fast tanks used by German forces against Poland n 1939
The Maginot Line
a constructed line of defense created by France against the French-German frontier.
A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire.
The Battle of Britain
Is the name given to the air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940. The objective of the campaign was to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF).
The Battle of the Atlantic
The German goal during this battle was to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain and the Soviet Union. Hitler knew that if he cut that lifeline Britain would be starved into submission. The Allies responded to the German's raids against ships along U.S. East Coast by organizing their cargo ships into convoys (groups of ships traveling together for mutual protection). Launching of Allied ships began to outnumber sinkings. Allies Won.
The Lend-Lease Program
Under the Lend-Lease Program, President Roosevelt authorized the sale of surplus military equipment to the Allies. The Lend-Lease Program was used primarily to help Great Britain and the Soviet Union resists Nazi Germany.
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
The Bataan Death March
began on April 9, 1942, was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000-80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. All told, approximately 2,500-10,000 Filipino and 100-650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach their destination at Camp O'Donnell. The reported death tolls vary, especially amongst Filipino POWs, because historians cannot determine how many prisoners blended in with the civilian population and escaped. The march went from Mariveles, Bataan, to San Fernando, Pampanga. From San Fernando, survivors were loaded to a box train and they were brought to Camp O'Donnell in Capas, Tarlac.
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there.
British deny Germany of taking over the Suez Canal, Allied victory in October 1942 led by British general Bernard Montgomery and supported by U.S. tanks that repelled Germans back into Tunisia. They halted German advance in North Africa
the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
(FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
American landing site in France on D-Day; an extremely difficult battle to take the beat
One of the four beaches that the allied forces landed on during the Normandy invasion. This was one of the American beaches, where the US's forces were fighting. The bloodiest was Omaha beach.
The Yalta Conference
FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at Yalta, on the Black Sea, in Feb. 1945 to plan the future of Europe after WWII. Their decisions shaped Europe for the remainder of the 20th century.
The Battle of the Bulge
The December 1944 German offensive that marked hitler's last chance to stop the allied advance, AKA Battle of the Ardennes started on December 16, 1944. planned by the Germans was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp and then proceeding to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis's favor. The "bulge" refers to the salient the Germans initially put into the Allies' line of advance. the most bloody of the comparatively few European battles American forces experienced in WWII, the 19,000 American dead
A famous battle which was turning point where American naval forces defeated Japanese naval forces the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers. Fought very close to Hawaii in 1942, an American victory that saved Hawaii from Japanese takeover
1st offensive against Japan lasted 6th month,the battle for Solomon island was a turning point, First US land victory over the Japanese
second time the United States was on the offensive (the Battle of Guadalcanal had been the first); and the first offensive in the critical central Pacific region; also the first time in the war that the United States faced serious Japanese opposition to an amphibious landing
..., a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
This is the highest point on Iwo Jima and is where five U.S. marines and one navy medic raised the American flag after Iwo Jima was taken away from the Japanese.
The last offensive battle of WWII. U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
The Manhattan Project
A secret research project of the US to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the US the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)
the name of the American B-29 bomber, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, Jr., that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
The United Nations
An organization of nations that was formed in 1945 to promote peace, security, and international cooperation. The organization is located in New York City.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after Lenin, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
A very crude leader that took advantage of a disillusioned and depression-stricken nation. After the Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI, lead the nation into WWII under the "big lie." In 1932 the nazis had become the largest political party. came to power legally in 1933. used his new power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state. he took propaganda to a new level. He enforced the secret police. His hatred of the jews, or anti-Semitism, was a key part of nazi ideology. Hitler led to the way and leaded the Holocaust.
1938; gullible British Prime Minister; declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland. Used appeasement to avoid war with Hitler until 1940 (when Churchill succeeded him)
Britain's new prime minister during WWII who pleaded for US aid, rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882-1945) Thirty-second president of the United States; he was elected president four times. He led the United States during the major crises of the Great Depression and declared war on Japan in World War II.
Allied commander and five star general in the U.S. army. he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 headed the U.S. army in Japan and Korea but was fired by Truman for questioning the actions of his superiors in the midst of the Korean war.
German field marshall "Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.,
A British army general who defeated the Germans at El Alamein in Egypt, and began pursuing them westward.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School when Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, Republican; Domino Theory established, Cold War deepened, sent US military advisors to Vietnam; and created the Interstate Highway System (for purposes of national defense)
Nimitz served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them.
Harry S. Truman
Succeeded FDR upon his death. Led the country through the last few months of World War II, and made the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, he was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery. Created the CIA