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APUSH Civil War
Terms in this set (63)
Coined in the 1840s by the Jacksonian democrats, was the belief that the united states was "destined" to spread from the atlantic seaboard to the pacific ocean. Used to promote the annexation of most of the western united states (oregon territory, texas annexation, and the mexican cessation). Always regarded as a general notion rather than a specific policy.
Texas decides to secede from mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with Mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits. The north feared the slavery, therefore they were against it.
In 1836, texas fought for its independence from mexico. thousands of mexicans attacked the alamo, a fortress in san antonio, texas, which was defended by less than two hundred americans. the mexicans kiled the americans, including frontiersman davy crockett. the cry "remember the alamo" inspired the americans to defeat the mexicans at san jacinto.
The territory comprised what are now the states of oregon and washington, and portions of what became british columbia, canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly under the convention of 1818.
Is present day southwestern united states that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo following the mexican-american war. This massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
U.S. secretary of state daniel webster and british ambassador lord alexander ashburton created a treaty splitting new brunswick territory into maine and british canada; also settled boundary of the minnesota territory (giving iron-rich mesabi range to us) resolved aroostook war.
Was the 1853 treaty in which the united states bought from mexico parts of what is now southern arizona and southern new mexico. southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
(1848) ended the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and was signed in its namesake neighborhood of Mexico City. Its most significant result was the "Mexican Cession" transferring California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of four other states to the U.S. It also made the Rio Grande the boundary between Texas and Mexico.
54-40 or Fight
An aggressive slogan adopted in the oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between canada and oregon should be drawn. This was also polk's slogan - the democrats wanted the u.s. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
Miners who rushed to california after the discovery of gold in the northern part of the territory in 1848 were called "forty-niners". They included people from every social class and from every state and territory, as well as slaves brought by their owners. most went overland.
Lone Star Republic
An independent sovereign nation in North America which existed between 1836 to 1846. It was bordered by the nation of Mexico to the southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two US states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and the United States territories to the north and west. Formed as a separate nation after gaining independence from Mexico in 1836.
A mission by John Slidell, a member of the House, to negotiate the following: (1) Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and the United States, (2) American forgiveness of the claims by U.S. citizens against the Mexican government, (3) The purchase of the New Mexico area for $5 million, and (4), The purchase of California at any price. Mexico refused to receive Slidell, and he thus recommended that strong action be taken.
A minor political party in the United States in the 1840s. The party was an early advocate of the abolitionist cause. It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) to advocate the view that the Constitution was an anti-slavery document; William Lloyd Garrison, leader of the AASS, held the contrary view that the Constitution should be condemned as an evil pro-slavery document. The party included abolitionists who were willing to work within electoral politics to try to influence people to support their goals, as opposed to radicals. The party was announced in November 1839.
Free Soil Party
A short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections. It was a single-issue party that largely appealed to and drew its greatest strength from New York State. The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery.
A political movement by the nativist American political faction of the 1850s, characterized by political xenophobia, anti-Catholic sentiment, and occasional bouts of violence against the groups the nativists targeted. Mainly active from 1854 to 1856, it strove to curb immigration and naturalization, though its efforts met with little success. Membership was limited to Protestant males of British American lineage. Fragmented over the issue of slavery. Outsiders called them "Know-Nothings" because when a member was asked about its activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing".
Uncle Tom's Cabin
An anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist, featured the character of Uncle Tom. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. However, this is often overshadowed by the multitude of stereotypes it helped to create about black people.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
...an American abolitionist and author. Her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) was a depiction of life for African-Americans under slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and United Kingdom. It energized anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South
Nat Turner's rebellion
...a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55-65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the South
...would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future, including the area later known as the Mexican Cession, but which some proponents construed to also include the disputed lands in south Texas and New Mexico east of the Rio Grande
Compromise of 1850
... a five part bill passed in 1850 dealing with the issue of territories acquired in the Mexican-American War becoming slave or free states. California admitted as free state, NM territory and Utah allowed to use popular sovereignty, fugitive slave act strengthened.
...served three different terms as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and was also Secretary of State from 1825 to 1829. He lost his campaigns for president in 1824, 1832 and 1844
Fugitive Slave Act
...passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory
...created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through Popular Sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory
...When the people decide
Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Scott sues for freedom when taken to Illinois (free state) by owner -- granted it by Illinois court, then revoked by Missouri court. Taken to the Supreme Court, which decides blacks are not protected by the Constitution and are not U.S. citizens.
Abraham Lincoln and Steven Douglas debate to try to win their respective parties control of Illinois legislature -- mainly discuss slavery (Lincoln is anti, Douglas is pro)
Election of 1860
Democrats split North and South: 2 nominees, Douglas (N) and Breckinridge (S)
Lincoln wins in the electoral college. Southern proslavery advocates/secessionists push their states to consider secession.
The states' rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or enforce a federal law passed by the U.S. Congress.
Act of withdrawing membership from a federal body or union.
1860: South Carolina secedes, and other Southern states want to follow.
1861: Multiple other Deep South states secede, join North Carolina to form the Confederacy.
1854-1858: Kansas-Nebraska act gives the people of Kansas control over the legality of slavery there, and fighting erupts between anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups.
Douglas, during the Lincoln-Douglas debates, stated that individual states can exclude slavery (in spite of the Dred Scott decision) by not passing laws essential for slave-holding. Earns Douglas reelection to the Senate, but hurts his bid for the presidency.
1859: John Brown, crazed religious abolitionist, led a raid on Harpers Ferry with the hopes of triggering a slave rebellion -- he doesn't succeed and is eventually hanged, but the event strikes fear of slave revolt and abolitionist resistance in the South.
This was a proposal brought to congress by the senator from Kentucky named John Crittenden. It aimed to end the secession crisis by addressing the grievances of the southern states.
A party formed in 1834 in opposition to Jacksonian policies that became a national political force. this party advocated elite based on talent rather than inheritance. It promoted an active government role in slow, controlled westward expansion, a national bank and paper currency, and attempted to institute social reforms such as public schools, prison reform, and temperance.
This was the party of Abraham Lincoln. Most of this party was from up north. A lot of them were anti-slavery and pro-union. Some notable republicans were thaddeus stevens and preston blair and charles sumner who was beaten with a cane.
The party of Andrew Jackson. This party opposed the national bank, and embraced equal rights for all citizens. It was made up of mostly non-evangelicals, and believed that religion should be separate from politics. This party was made up of a lot of southerners and some northerners. Most of these people were pro slavery.
This term refers to the movement to get rid of slavery. It tried to end the african slave trade and set all of the slaves free. Slavery was abolished in the U.S. in 1865 with the 13th Amendment.
William Lloyd Garrison
He was a prominent abolitionist, a journalist and social reformer. He was the head of abolitionist newspaper called The Liberator. He promoted immediate emancipation and was big promoter of the women's suffrage movement.
this was self given name to Isabella Baumfree an African American Abolitionist and women's rights activist. She escaped from slavery to the north. She was the first black women to win a court case where she won her sons freedom.
He was a person who escaped from slavery who became a social reformer, writer, orator and statesmen. He was a leader of the abolitionist movement. He was counter example to the argument from slave owners that slaves couldn't be educated. He was the first african american to hold public offices. He was a big push behind the women's suffrage movement as well.
A conflict that occurred as the result of Mexican resentment over the US annexation of Texas and a border dispute, the Mexican-American War represents the only major military dispute between the two nations. The war was fought primarily in northeastern and central Mexico and resulted in a decisive American victory. As a result of the war, Mexico was forced to cede its northern and western provinces, which today comprise a significant portion of the western United States.
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison (1841)
Died in Office on April 4, 1841
Served 1 Term**
John Tyler (1841-1845)
Democrat at Heart
Vetoes Bank of United States
Served 1 Term
James K. Polk
James K. Polk (1845-1849)
Oregon Country w/Britain
Served 1 Term
Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)
Congressional Debate of 1850
Died in Office on July 9, 1850
Served 1 Term**
Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850
"2nd Era of Good Feelings"
Served 1 Term
Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)
Lecompton Constitution w/Kansas
Served 1 Term
James Buchanan (1857-1861)
Dred Scott Case
Panic of 1857
Served 1 Term
Lincoln announces on the first of 1863 all slaves in the rebelling states would be free.
AIM: injure confederacy, threaten its property, heighten its dread, hurt its morale.
REALITY: did not immediately free any slaves since it could not be enforced in those states it targeted
Concept of Total War
pioneered by Sherman
war that involves every aspect of society
confederate state that split into two
first state to secede
Morrill Tariff Act (1861)
Raised tariff rates to increase revenue and protect American manufacturers. Its passage initiated a Republican program of high protective tariffs to help industrialists
(1862) A federal Law that gave settlers 160 Acres of land for about 30$ if they lived on it for 5 years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped the land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land.
One of the most important battles of the Civil War was a 3 day struggle. This was the farthest north that the Confederate forces had advanced into Union territory.
All white males to military service for 3 years
Could avoid service by substitution
Exemption- one white male on each plantation for every 20 slaves
1863 Congress passed national draft law: all males eligible to be drafted
Could escape service by hiring someone to go in ones place of paying fed govt.
(NYC draft riot)
battle plan drawn up by Winfield Scott to isolate Southern trade, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi River, and to take an army through heart of south
Suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
Confederate Financing Civil War
•No tax burdens, unstable banking system
•Printing of paper currency
No uniform currency
Union Financing of the War
•Levied taxes on almost all good and services
Borrowing from American people and banks and large financial interest
South's advantages in the Civil War
Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.
North's advantages in the Civil War
Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
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