C) Use daily reminders to take immunosuppressants.
After renal transplantation, acute rejection is a risk for several months, so immunosuppressive therapy, such as corticosteroids and azathioprine (Imuran), is essential in preventing rejection, so the priority instruction includes measures, such as daily reminders (C), to ensure the client takes these medications regularly. Daily weights, not weekly (A), provides a better indicator of weight gain related to rejection. Although fungal infections related to the immunosuppression should be reported (B), it is more important to ensure medication compliance to prevent rejection. Although smoking (D) increases the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease which is common in clients with an organ transplant, (C) remains the priority.
A) Loss of thirst, weight gain.
SIADH occurs when the posterior pituitary gland releases too much ADH, causing water retention, a urine output of less than 20 ml/hour, and dilutional hyponatremia. Other indications of SIADH are loss of thirst, weight gain (A), irritability, muscle weakness, and decreased level of consciousness. (B) is not associated with SIADH. (C) is a finding associated with diabetes insipidus (a water metabolism problem caused by an ADH deficiency), not SIADH. The increase in plasma volume causes an increase in the glomerular filtration rate that inhibits the release of rennin and aldosterone, which results in an increased sodium loss in urine, leading to greater hyponatremia, not (D).
As the glomerular filtration rate decreases in early renal insufficiency, metabolic waste products, including urea, creatinine, and other substances, such phenols, hormones, electrolytes, accumulate in the blood. In the early stage of renal insufficiency, polyuria results from the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine and contribute to nocturia (B). (A, C, and D) are more common in the later stages of renal failure.