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philosophy exam 2
Terms in this set (93)
The main task of which philosophical moment was to integrate Greek philosophy in the Christian religion?
Which of the following lived the latest? Muhammed, St. Augustine, St Anselm, Avicenna
What topic was St. Augustine especially interested in?
The problem of evil
According to Augustine, evil is....?
Why did Augustine think that God allowed evil in the world?
God allowed evil because he wanted to create rational beings, beings with free will.
Augustine's third argument as to why God allowed evil was....?
That the world with evil in it is greater than one without it.
Disease is an example of what type of evil?
What problem was Boethius trying to answer?
If God already knows what we are going to do in the future, how can we be said to have free will?
What is Boethius's solution?
God exists outside of time.
Avicenna was the most important philosopher in the ___________ tradition?
Avicenna held that mind and body.....?
are distinct substances.
Avicenna's thought experiment concerning mind and body as called...?
The flying Man
What does Avicenna think happens to our soul at death?
It lives on.
What 17th century philosopher gave an argument very similar to Avicennas?
How did Gilbert Ryle characterize mind/body dualism?
The Ghost in the Machine.
Anselm came up with which argument for the existence of God?
The Ontological Argument
Anselm's argument depends on what being true?
God is the greatest thing there could be.
What is the most important argument that an omni-competent God does not exist?
The argument from evil
all knowing, all powerful, all good
Who came up with the idea that we should wager that God exists?
In class, we talked about some problems for traditional monotheists accepting that God exists outside of time. What are they?
-God couldn't make things happen in the world
-god couldn't change
-god couldn't think
What was Aquinas's philosophical approach?
What religious order did Aquinas belong to
Who, in the 6th century AD, argued that Aristotle was wrong that the universe has always existed, since if the universe has always existed, then an infinite number of creatures have exists, and every year there's more. But there can't be more than an infinite number of anything, and so therefore the universe has not always existed.
Aquinas thinks that Aristotle's view that the universe has always existed....
is consistent with reason, but we know it's false because of Scripture.
Aquinas thought that we gain knowledge....?
Through the sense and intellect.
What is JJT's conclusion regarding abortion?
Her conclusion is that some abortions are morally permissible even if the unborn human has a right to life
According to JJT, what is the most common argument that opponents of abortion use to justify the position that an unborn hum has a right to life from conception?
The development of the unborn is continuous from conception to birth, and therefore picking any mid-point is arbitrary.
JJT's main thought experiment involves a....?
A famous violinist.
TRUE OR FALSE: JJT think that we have a right to "...the minimum a man needs for continued life."
Don Marquis's conclusion, his thesis, is....?
Abortion is, with rare exceptions, seriously immoral.
Why does Marquis think that killing, including abortions, are wrong?
Killing involves the taking away of someone's future.
What is Karl popper known for
Which of the following eras came first?: Romanticism, Renaissance, post modernism, modernism
What was the outlook of the renaissance?
According to the text, what was the final nail in the coffin of the Church's authority?
Proof that the earth goes around the sun.
The belief that knowledge comes from reason alone is called....?
Francis Bacon is often credited with being the first....?
What relation should science have with religion, according to Bacon?
They should be separate
Bacon called psychological barriers to pursing scientific knowledge....?
Idols of the mind
Bacon called the tendency of human beings as a species to generalize
idols of the tribe
Bacon called the tendency to impose preconceptions on nature rather than to see what it is really there
Idols of the cave
Bacon called our tendency to let social conventions distort our experience
Idols of the marketplace
bacon called the distorting influence of prevailing philosophical and scientific dogma
Idols of the theatre
Bacon felt that the advancement of science depends on....?
formulating laws of ever-increasing generality.
The view that you can only know that you have a mind. It follows that you don't know whether other people have them. What is this view called?
Who came up with a test to say whether or not a computing system is conscious?
Who came up with the Chinese Room thought experiment?
According to Thomas Hobbes, Man....?
Hobbes defended with metaphysical view?
What is the "hard problem of consciousness?"
The HPC is explaining the nature of subjective, first-person experience.
Who was an advocate of "incorporeal substance" that Hobbes took issue with?
What was Hobbes' most famous work?
Descartes is most famous for saying....?
I think therefore I am
In his Medications, what was Descartes's method?
The method of doubt.
Regarding what you are, Descartes was a....?
what are our 3 main political values, according to our last class?
freedom, order, equality
Who values freedom more than equality or order?
Which ideology values order more than equality?
Which ideology values equality more than order?
Which ideology values order and equality more than freedom?
The mind/body problem is a problem for?
What phrase means fixing a a problem magically, whether through divine intervention or some other mystical process?
Deus ex Machina
Who said that God provides the connection between mind and body?
What is an inference to the best explanation called?
Locke was an advocate of which theory?
Locke thought that a human mind, at birth, is....?
a tablua rasa
Who thought that there is an innate process of thinking in every human mind, which is capable of generating a universal "deep structure" of language.
TRUE OR FALSE: According to Leibniz, there are three kinds of truths: Truths of reason, fact, and beauty.
false only truth of reason and fact
Leibniz invented which of the following mathematical techniques?
What did Leibniz call individual substances that make up the world?
According to the authors of our book, what claim leads Leibniz into trouble?
The claim that matters of fact are necessary truths.
For Berkeley, to be....
is to be perceived.
What does Dr. Eagleston think is the relation of the brain to subject reality?
The brain constructs it
What does Dr. Eagleton call the assumptions the brain makes about reality?
The Internal Model
what are the justifications that Dr. Eagleston gave for what we experience being more about what goes on in our brain than what comes streaming in through the senses?
-illusions cause us to see what's not really there
-We experience everything synchronized even though the processing takes different amounts of time for each of our senses.
-When we are deprived of sensory input, the show goes on.
what is in the movie The Brain?
-Cool-eyed Luke got put in The Hole.
-Eric May got new corneas.
-Hannah had synesthesia
Berkeley's metaphysical position is called...?
According to Berkeley, the only type of cause is....?
The act of a will.
According to Berkeley, ideas can only resemble....?
According to Berkeley, why does my wallet not disappear when I put it in my desk drawer and close the drawer?
God perceives it.
What is Hume's argument that we aren't born with innate ideas called?
For Hume, there are two types of statements. What are they?
Probable and demonstrative
If a statement doesn't meet either of Hume's two categories we just talked about, then the statement, for Hume, is....?
Hume gives a couple of example of claims that don't fall into either of his two categories of statements. What are they
-Event A causes Event B.
-Nature behaves in a uniform way.
According to the text, which of the following was greatly influenced by Hume?
What was Voltaire known for?
Voltaire was known for his writings that were against Injustice and Inequality
What was voltaire's branch and approach
epistemology and skepticism
What did Voltaire believe?
freedom of speech- challenge and doubt monarchy or church
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
What was Adam Smith known for?
Wealth of Nations
What did Adam Smith believe?
He believed that the individuals could think for themselves and did not need the government telling them what to do.
Adam Smith and the free market
a capitalist who believed free markets would work through supply and demand and the invisible hand
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