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the major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rectum and is formed by the ascending, transverse and descending portions
used to bit and chew food. mixes with saliva. shapes food into small portions and is pushed into the pharynx
the throat; common passageway for food by swallows food and moves it into the esophagus and air entering the larynx
stores food; churns to mix food with water and digestive enzymes. secretes protein-digesting hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin
secetes enzymes. recieves secretions from the accessory organs, which digest and neutralize food. this is the site of most digestion and absorption of nutrients into the circulation
compromised of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum
the terminal portion of the digestive tract consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum and anus. it forms, stores and eliminates undigested waste material
secretes saliva, which moistens food and contains salivary amylase, and enzyme that begins the digestion of starch
a sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile and releases it into the digestive tract
a long, elongated gland posterior to the stomach. secretes a variety of digestive enzymes and also secretes bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid and water to dilute food
it produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
muscle tissue at the distal end of the esophagus that prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus.
also called the cardiac sphincter
the stomach's distal opening into the duodenum.
the opening in controlled by the pyloric sphincter
the clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains a starch-digesting enzyme
it is produced by three glands: the parotid, submandibular and sublingual
the distal S-shaped portion of the large intestine located between the descending colon and the rectum
the fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate; aids in speech production
literally "little grape"
accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity; a form of edema.
may be caused by heart disease, lymphatic or venous obstruction, cirrhosis or changes in blood plasma composition
inability to absorb foods containing gluten, a protein foing in wheat and some other grains
caused by an excess immune response to gluten
the condition of having stones in the gallbladder or sometimes in the common bule duct
a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract usually involving the ilieum and colon
inflammation of diverticula in the wall of the digestive tract, especially in the colon
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
condition caused by reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus resulting in heartburn, regurgitation, inflammation and possible damage to the esophagus
cause by weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter
a warm or burning sensation felt behind the sternum and radiating upward
commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux whose medical name is pyrosis
varicose veins in the rectum associated with pain, bleeding and sometimes rectal prolapse
a protrusion of the stomach through the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes
slipping of one intestinal segment into another part below it
occurs mainly in male infants in the ileocecal region. may be fatal if untreated for more than one day
a yellowish color of the skin, mucus membranes and whites of the eye caused by bile pigments in the blood
the main pigment is bilirubin which is a byproduct of erythrocyte destruction
blood present in such small amounts that it can be detected only microscopically or chemically
in the feces, it is a sign of internal bleeding
inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs.
may result from perforation of an ulcer, ruptured appendix or reproductive tract infection
twisting of the intestine resulting in obstruction
usually involves the sigmoid colon and occurs most often in children and in the elderly
may be caused by congenital malformation, a foreign body or adhesion and failure to treat immediately may result in death
a passage or communication between two vessels or organs
may be normal or pathologic and can be treated surgically
use of barium sulfate as a liquid contrast medium for fluoroscopoc or radiographic study of the digestive tract
can show obstruction, tumors ulcers, hiatal hernia and motility disorders
a system for staging colorectal cancer based on degree of bowel wall penetration and lymph node involvement. severity is graded A to C
use of fiberoptic endoscope for direct visual examination
GI studies include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
a technique for viewing the pancreatic and bile ducts and for performing certain techniques to relieve obstructions. the contrast medium is injected into the biliary system from the duodenum before radiographs are taken
an opening into the body; generally refers to an opening created for elimination of body waste
the right bend of the colon, forming the junction between the ascending colon and the transverse colon
the left bend of the colon, forming the junction between the transverse colon and the descending colon
excessive, insatiable appetite. a disorder characterized by overeating followed by induced vomiting, diarrhea and fasting
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
a chronic stress related disease characterized by diarrhea, constipation and pain associated with rhythmic intestinal contractions
mucous colitis; spastic colon
gastric bypass surgery
division of the stomach and anastommosis of its upper part to the small intestine (jejunum) to reduce nutrient absorption
used to treat morbid obesity
tube that is passed through the nose into the stomach
may be used for emptying the stomach, administering medication, giving liquids or sampling stomach contents
drug that treats or prevents diarrhea by reducing intestinal motility or absorbing irritants and soothing the intestinal lining
agents that promotes elimination from the large intestine
types include stimulants, substances that retain water (hyperosmotics), stool softeners and bulk-forming agents
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