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132 terms

digestive system

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anus
the distal opening of the digestive tract
appendix
the narrow tube of lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum
bile
the fluid secreted by the liver that emulsifies fats and aids in their absorption
cecum
a blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine
colon
the major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rectum and is formed by the ascending, transverse and descending portions
mouth
used to bit and chew food. mixes with saliva. shapes food into small portions and is pushed into the pharynx
pharynx
the throat; common passageway for food by swallows food and moves it into the esophagus and air entering the larynx
stomach
stores food; churns to mix food with water and digestive enzymes. secretes protein-digesting hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin
small intestine
secetes enzymes. recieves secretions from the accessory organs, which digest and neutralize food. this is the site of most digestion and absorption of nutrients into the circulation

compromised of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum
large intestine
the terminal portion of the digestive tract consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum and anus. it forms, stores and eliminates undigested waste material
salivary glands
secretes saliva, which moistens food and contains salivary amylase, and enzyme that begins the digestion of starch
liver
the large gland in the upper right abdomen. it secretes bile salts that break down fats
gallbladder
a sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile and releases it into the digestive tract
pancreas
a long, elongated gland posterior to the stomach. secretes a variety of digestive enzymes and also secretes bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid and water to dilute food

it produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism
esophagus
the muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach by peristalsis
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
muscle tissue at the distal end of the esophagus that prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus.

also called the cardiac sphincter
salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
the accessory organs
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
organs of the digestive tract
mastication
chewing
peristalsis
wavelike contractions of an organ's walls; moves material through an organ or duct
pylorus
the stomach's distal opening into the duodenum.

the opening in controlled by the pyloric sphincter
rectum
the distal portion of the large intestine. it stores and eliminates undigested waste
saliva
the clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains a starch-digesting enzyme

it is produced by three glands: the parotid, submandibular and sublingual
sigmoid colon
the distal S-shaped portion of the large intestine located between the descending colon and the rectum
uvula
the fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate; aids in speech production

literally "little grape"
cheek
the root buccco means
tooth, teeth
the root dento, denti means
tooth, teeth
the root odonto means
gum
the root gingivo means
tongue
the root glosso means
tongue
the root linguo means
jaw
the root gnatho means
lip
the root labio means
mouth
the root oro means
mouth
the root stoma, stomato means
palate
the root palato means
saliva, salivary gland, salivary duct
the root sialo means
uvula
the root uvulo means
any disease of the mouth
stomatosis means
esophagus
the root esophago means
stomach
the root gastro means
pylorus
the root pyloro means
intestine
the root entero means
duodenum
the root duodeno means
jejunum
the root jejuno means
ileum
the root ileo means
cecum
the root ceco means
colon
the root colo, colono means
sigmoid colon
the root sigmoido means
rectum
the root recto means
rectum
the root procto means
anus
the root ano means
liver
the root hepato means
bile, gall
the root chole, cholo means
common bile duct
the root choledocho means
bile in the blood
the term cholemia means
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
ascites
accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity; a form of edema.

may be caused by heart disease, lymphatic or venous obstruction, cirrhosis or changes in blood plasma composition
caries
tooth decay
celiac disease
inability to absorb foods containing gluten, a protein foing in wheat and some other grains

caused by an excess immune response to gluten
cholelithiasis
the condition of having stones in the gallbladder or sometimes in the common bule duct
chrohn disease
a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract usually involving the ilieum and colon
diverticulitis
inflammation of diverticula in the wall of the digestive tract, especially in the colon
crushing of a gallston
cholelithotripsy refers to
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
emesis
vomitting
vomiting of bile
cholemisis refers to
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestine
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
condition caused by reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus resulting in heartburn, regurgitation, inflammation and possible damage to the esophagus

cause by weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter
heartburn
a warm or burning sensation felt behind the sternum and radiating upward

commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux whose medical name is pyrosis
hemorrhoids
varicose veins in the rectum associated with pain, bleeding and sometimes rectal prolapse

piles
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver

commonly caused by a viral infection
acting on the liver
hepatotrophic refers to
hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver
hiatal hernia
a protrusion of the stomach through the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes
icterus
jaundice
intussusception
slipping of one intestinal segment into another part below it

occurs mainly in male infants in the ileocecal region. may be fatal if untreated for more than one day
jaundice
a yellowish color of the skin, mucus membranes and whites of the eye caused by bile pigments in the blood

the main pigment is bilirubin which is a byproduct of erythrocyte destruction
occult blood
blood present in such small amounts that it can be detected only microscopically or chemically

in the feces, it is a sign of internal bleeding
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs.

may result from perforation of an ulcer, ruptured appendix or reproductive tract infection
polyp
a tumor that grows on a stalk and bleeds easily
pyloric stenosis
narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
volvulus
twisting of the intestine resulting in obstruction

usually involves the sigmoid colon and occurs most often in children and in the elderly

may be caused by congenital malformation, a foreign body or adhesion and failure to treat immediately may result in death
anastomosis
a passage or communication between two vessels or organs

may be normal or pathologic and can be treated surgically
barium study
use of barium sulfate as a liquid contrast medium for fluoroscopoc or radiographic study of the digestive tract

can show obstruction, tumors ulcers, hiatal hernia and motility disorders
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
dukes classification
a system for staging colorectal cancer based on degree of bowel wall penetration and lymph node involvement. severity is graded A to C
endoscopy
use of fiberoptic endoscope for direct visual examination

GI studies include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

a technique for viewing the pancreatic and bile ducts and for performing certain techniques to relieve obstructions. the contrast medium is injected into the biliary system from the duodenum before radiographs are taken
ostomy
an opening into the body; generally refers to an opening created for elimination of body waste
stoma
a surgically created opening to the body surface or between organs
bolus
a mass, such as the rounded mass of food that is swallowed
cardia
the part of the stomach near the esophagus
chyme
the semiliquid partially digested food that moves from the stomach into the small intestine
defecation
the evacuation of feces from the rectum
deglutition
swallowing
hepatic flexure
the right bend of the colon, forming the junction between the ascending colon and the transverse colon
peritoneum
the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and supports the abdominal organs
spenic flexure
the left bend of the colon, forming the junction between the transverse colon and the descending colon
anorexia
loss of appetite. a psychologically induced refusal or inability to eat
aphagia
inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing; refusal or inability to eat
bulimia
excessive, insatiable appetite. a disorder characterized by overeating followed by induced vomiting, diarrhea and fasting
cachexia
profound ill health, malnutrition and wasting
constipation
infrequency or difficulty in defecation and the passage of hard dry feces
dyspepsia
poor or painful digestion
eructation
belching
flatulence
condition of having gas or air in the GI tract
flatus
gas or air in the gastrointestinal tract; gas or air expelled through the anus
hematemesis
vomiting of blood
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
a chronic stress related disease characterized by diarrhea, constipation and pain associated with rhythmic intestinal contractions

mucous colitis; spastic colon
obstipation
extreme constipation
appendectomy
surgical removal of the appendix
billroth operation
gastrectomy with anastomosis of the stomach to the duodenum or to the jejunum
gastric bypass surgery
division of the stomach and anastommosis of its upper part to the small intestine (jejunum) to reduce nutrient absorption

used to treat morbid obesity
gavage
process of feeding through a nasogastric tube into the stomach
nasogastric tube
tube that is passed through the nose into the stomach

may be used for emptying the stomach, administering medication, giving liquids or sampling stomach contents
percutaneous endoscopuc gastrostomy (PEG) tube
tube inserted into the stomach for long term feeding
antacid
agent that counteracts acidity, usually gastric acidity
antidiarrheal
drug that treats or prevents diarrhea by reducing intestinal motility or absorbing irritants and soothing the intestinal lining
antiemetic
agent that relieves or prevents nausea and vomiting
antiflatulent
agent that prevents or relieves flatulence
emetic
an agent that causes vomiting (ipecac)
laxative
agents that promotes elimination from the large intestine

types include stimulants, substances that retain water (hyperosmotics), stool softeners and bulk-forming agents
barium enema
BE
bowel movement
BM
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ERCP
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GERD
gastrointestinal
GI
hydrochloric acid
HCl
irritable bowel syndrome
IBS
nasogastric (tube)
NG
upper gastrointestinal
UGI