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30 terms

Chem-Chap 7

Chemistry Chapter 7 Vocabulary
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solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances where the components are present as atoms, molecules or ions
solvent
substance present in a solution in the largest amount
solute
one or more substances present in a solution in amounts less than that of the solvent
dissolving
term used to describe the process of solution formation when one or more solutes are dispersed in a solvent to form a homogeneous mixture
soluble substance
substance that dissolves to a significant extent in a solvent
insoluble substance
substance that does not dissolve to a significant extent in a solvent
immiscible
term used to describe liquids that are insoluble in each other
solubility
max amount of solute that can be dissolved in a specific amount of solvent under specific conditions of temperature and pressure
saturated solution
solution that contains the max amount possible of dissolved solute in a stable situation under the prevailing conditions of temperature and pressure
supersaturated solution
unstable solution that contains an amount of solute greater than the solute solubilit under the prevailing conditions of temperature and pressure
hydrated ion
an ion in solution that is surrounded by water molecules
concentration
relationship between the amount of solute and the specific amount of solution in which it is contained
molarity (M)
solution concentration expressed in terms of the number of moles of solute contained in a liter of solution
percent
solution concentration that expresses the amount of solute in 100 parts of solution
weight/weight percent
concentration that expresses the mass of solute contained in 100 mass units of solution
weight/volume percent
concentration that exresses the grams of solute contained in 100 mL of solution
volume/volume percent
concentration that expresses the volume of soltue contained in 100 volumes of solution
electrolyte
solute that when dissolved in water forms a solution that conducts electricity
nonelectrolyte
solute when dissolved in water forms a solution that does not conduct electricity
colligative property
solution property that depends only on the concentration of solute particles in solution
osmotic pressure
hydrostatic pressure required to prevent the net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane into a solution
osmosis
process where solvent flows through a semipermeable membrane into a solution
osmolarity
product of n and M in the equation (pie)=nMRT
colloid
homogeneous mixture of two or more substnaces where the dispersed substances are present as larger particles than are found in solutions
dispersing medium
substance present in a colloidal dispersion in the largest amount
dispersed phase
substance present in a colloidal dispersion in amounts less than the amount of dispersing medium
Tyndall Effect
property of colloids where the path of a beam of light through the colloid is visible beacuse the light is scattered
emulsifying agent (stabalizing agent)
substance that when added to colloids prevents them from coalescing and settling
dislyzing membrane
semipermeable mebrane with pores large enough to allow solvent molecules, other small molecules and hydrated ions to pass through
dialysis
process where solvent molecules, other small molecules and hydrated ions pass from a solution through a membrane