20 terms

RELIGION 12 Test 1 Study Guide

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Monism
21, 184, 229, 430, 432
The ontological view that only one entity exists (e.g. as in Spinoza) or that only one kind of entity exists (e.g. as in Hobbes & Berkeley).
Dualism
77, 177-178, 181, 182, 189-190, 427, 434, 435, 436
the ontological view that reality is composed of 2 distinct types of beings: usually MINDS & BODIES
Mythos v. Logos
2, 15, 117, 45, 48
31, 32, 48
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Sophist
- a person good at arguing deviously; skilled debater
- a paid teacher of philosophy and rhetoric in ancient Greece, associated in popular thought with moral skepticism and specious reasoning
Origin mid 16th century: via Latin from Greek sophistēs, from sophizesthai 'devise, become wise,' from sophos 'wise.'
Wisdom (Socrates)
...
Ontology
the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.
Epistomology
- The study of how we know what we know
- The study of knowledge
Rationalism vs. Empiricism
Rationalism stresses using reason to arrive at truth, while empiricism stresses using observation to arrive at truth.
Form (Plato)
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Virtue Ethics (Aristotle)
A moral theory that focuses on the development of virtuous character.
Eudaimonia (Aristotle)
Best possible life
Evil (Augustine's definition)
A privation of good. Evil is a lack of goodness or a departure from the way things ought to be
Conscience (Aquinas)
knowledge applied to a specific/individual case
Ontological Argument
- In order for us to even have a concept of God, God has to exist
- the argument that God, being defined as most great or perfect, must exist, since a God who exists is greater than a God who does not.
Foundationalism
the theory that basic beliefs exist and form the foundation for knowledge
Coherentism
Beliefs are justified if they cohere with other beliefs a person holds.
Radical Skepticism
- Philosophical position that knowledge is most likely impossible.
- We can neither avoid error nor gain truth. We're either incapable of eliminating error, invariably committed to circular reasoning, or should suspend judgment indefinitely. If we have any true beliefs at all, we have them by accident. There's no trustworthy way to separate the true from the false, or, if there is, we can't figure out what it is.
State of Nature (Hobbes)
-in order for people to accept entering civil society and the social, must convince them to trade liberties for security. Needed government to protect one's rights, such as life and property
(1) Not just a vision of an imagined past, but also a projection of a possible future
-everyone is endowed with equal liberty in the state of nature, but that is not a harmless equality—it makes things more precarious, since it is the equal capacity to do evil things, such as robbing and killing others
War of all against all
Thomas Hobbes
tabula rasa (blank slate)
17th-century Englishman John Locke used this Latin term to refer to man's condition at birth -- He did not believe man was born with his identity predetermined, but rather was shaped by his experiences during life -- This became the basis of the Enlightenment idea that better institutions and policies could improve man's condition
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