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Biology 9 Chapter 16
Terms in this set (77)
change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms
selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring
heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment
process by which organisms that are most suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
the study of past and present distribution of organisms
structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry
body parts that share a common function, but not structure
structure that is inherited from ancestors but has lost much or all of its original function
Developed a scientific theory of biological evolution that explains how modern organisms evolved over long periods of time through descent from common ancestors
North America, Asia, or antartica
Darwin spent most of his time exploring the continent of _ ; he did not visit _, _, or _
During Darwin's time, geologists were suggesting that Earth was —
Evolving or changing
Darwin's work offers insight into the living world by showing organisms are constantly _.
The Galapagos tortoises were much different than other tortoises, they were different mainly because of their food sources
What important information about the Galápagos Islands tortoises did Darwin learn?
Because other animals look different on the other islands, but these three look a lot the same but they vary in places
Why where the similarities among rheas, emus, and ostriches surprising to Darwin?
They may have a relative in common, because they look somewhat the same
Why might Darwin come to think that the finches of the Galápagos Islands might be related to the finches of South America, despite how different the birds were in appearance?
Depending on the shape of the beak, that is the food they could get
Darwin observed that the birds he would eventually discover we're finches had differently shaped beaks. What might this suggest about the eating habits of the birds
They all came from the same family of that fossil
What did the similarities between fossil animals and modern animals, like the glyptodont and armadillo, suggest to Darwin?
The earth was really old and how old the rocks where, the earth has changed over time
In what two ways did an understanding of geology influence Darwin?
Hutton realized that earth was much _ than previously believed
Lyell thought most geological processes operated extremely _.
The processes that changed earth in the past are _ processes that operate in the present.
_ work explained how large geological features could be built up or torn down over long periods of time.
Lamarck thought that over time when species reproduced, the kids got the traits that the parents had, but you can also change yourself by using that body part more and that increase that ability
How did Lamarck propose that species change over time?
Lamarck would've explained the length of a giraffes neck by saying that as a giraffe reached for something high it's neck stretched, and then got a longer neck over time
How would Lamarck have explained the length of a giraffes neck?
Human birth rate was higher than the death rate
Which observation caused Thomas Malthus to form his theory about population growth?
If the human population grew unchecked, the wouldn't be enough living space and food for everyone
Which of the following is and idea attributed to Malthus?
Many more organisms are born than will survive and reproduce
Malthus's ideas led Darwin to conclude that
Humans select and breed for the variations they find useful or appealing, Darwin stated that nature provides the differences or variations among organisms
How do humans affect artificial selection? What role does nature play?
What is another name for artificial selection?
Find pigeons that naturally have larger beaks, then breed them, and repeat until all the pigeons have large beaks
Describe how you could use artificial selection to breed pigeons with large beaks.
What does the phrase struggle for existence mean?
Camouflage is a heritable trait that can help an organism blend in, and there for survive longer
Why is camouflage considered an adaptation?
The higher an animals fitness the better the chance of survival and reproduction.
How does an animal's level of fitness relate to its chances of survival and reproduction?
Natural selection acts on _ traits
Any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival is considered _.
_ is the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
Natural selection depends on the ability of organisms to _, which means to leave descendants
Every organism alive today _ from ancestors who survived and reproduced
Over many generations, adaptation could cause successful species to _ into new species
Common descent suggests that all species, living and extinct, are _.
Descent with modification
The principle that living species descend, with changes, from other species over time is referred to as _.
The _ provides physical evidence of descent with modification over long periods of time
Biogeographers study where organisms live now and where they and their _ lived in the last
When individuals from a mainland bird population immigrate to various islands, natural selection may result in _ but different, island species.
Distantly related organisms may be similar if they live in _.
The finch species have evolved from a common mainland ancestor
What explains the distribution of finch species on the Galápagos Islands?
These species have some common features because as they evolved they were exposed to similar pressures of natural selection
What explains the existence of similar but unrelated species?
Structures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited from a common ancestor
Body parts that share common function, but not structure
Body parts in animals that are so reduced in size that they are just vestiges, or traces, of homologous structures in other species
Bat wing and mouse arm
Reptile foot and bird foot
Dolphin fin and fish tail
Snake tongue and dog nose
Eyes on blind cave fish
The science of _ provides molecular evidence that supports evolutionary theory
All living cells use _ and _ to code heritable info.
Proteins that are _ share extensive structural and chemical similarities
Direct protein synthesis
The universal genetic code is used by almost all organisms to _
Cytochrome c is a protein used for _ in almost every living cell.
Homologous genes called Hox genes control timing and growth in _.
Relatively minor changes in an organism's genome can produce major changes in an organism's _.
Differences in beak size and shape produce differences in fitness.
What hypotheses did the grants test?
Great variation of heritable traits among Galápagos finches
The data that the Grants collected proved that there is
The Grants conducted their experiment to test which of the following processes
Species similar to mainland South American species
On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
When a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is _.
Possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness
According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the _.
A. Species can become extinct
B. Traits are passed from parent to offspring•
C. Species descend from common ancestors
D. Evolution takes place in the natural world
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection explains each of the following except how
The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. This is evidence of what concept?
In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur are _
Shape of beaks
The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on different Galápagos Islands varied in certain adaptations. One of the most significant was _
The nearly universal genetic code
Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes
Similar patterns of embryological development in different but related organisms are responsible for the information of __
A. More offspring are born than can survive
B.Population size is very large•
C. Fitness varies among individuals
D. There is heritable variation among members of the population
Each of the following is a condition necessary for natural selection to occur EXCEPT _
A. They transmit characteristics acquired by use and disuse to their offspring
B. They tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the population
C. They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment•
D. They will perpetuate unfavorable changes in the species
Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural selection?
Birds and reptiles share a number of inherited characteristic
The principle of common descent helps explain why ...
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