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AP Psych flash cards
Terms in this set (60)
The chloride coat forms the iris in the front of the eye. Responsible for eye color
Controlled by autonomic nervous system, when in danger or in dim light pupil widens to let in light
Detects white, black and gray that is necessary for peripheral vision
Provide a basis to color vision
Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina.
Admits light to the interior of the eye and bends the light rays so they can be brought into focus
The eye perceives the whole before it's parts.
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the next.
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave
The process of the lens adjusting to see near or far
Specific nerve cells that respond to stimulus such as shape and color
Opponent Process theory
Theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters wavelengths
The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses. Ea. a movie theater
A tones highness or lowness
Concentrates the vibrations of the eardrum, using the Anvil, stirrup, and hammer
Contains the cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule sacs, helps to hear sounds and stay balanced
Gate control theory
The spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on
Images from the 2 eyes differ
Neuromuscular cues when 2 eyes move inward towards the nose to see near objects outward
Size distance relationships are because distance cues (relative height and linear perspective)
Light and Shadow
Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes. Dimmer objects seem further away. Light is assumed to come from above
Parallel lines appear to converge with distance the more the lines converge the greater perceived distance
Bottom Up Processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
Top Down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
a stimulus too small to create an action potential in a neuron
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.)
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Conversion of light energy into neural impulses that the brain can understand
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing receptor rods and cones in addition to layers of other neurons (bipolar, ganglion cells) that process visual information.
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
Comprised of the axons of retinal ganglion cells, this carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
In the retina, the specialized neurons that connect to the bipolar cells; the bundled axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve.
The light-sensitive cells in the retina- the rods and cones.
Visual Information Processing
optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus connects to the visual cortex
the ability of the brain to identify specific components of visual stimuli such as corners or edges
specific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at shoes, faces, chairs, and houses
face blindness"-caused by damage to temporal lobe-great example of complete sensation without perception
The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Amount of energy in a wave determined by the amplitude. It is related to perceived brightness.
Visual theory, stated by Young and Helmholtz that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue; a.k.a the Young-Helmholtz theory.
Conversion of sound waves into neural impulses in the hairs cells of the inner ear
The dimension of frequency determined by the wavelength of sound. (Pitch)
Collects sound (Pinna)
Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations to auditory signals.
Conduction hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Sensorineural Hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerve, also called nerve deafness. Can be caused by exposure to loud noises over time
In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
The rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
Illustrates that although auditory information is the major source of information for speech perception, visual information can also exert a strong influence on what we hear (audio-visual speech perception). See ga-ga, hear ba-ba, perceive da-da
The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
Sensitive to all taste qualities except spicy
Middle ear bones
Transfer sound information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window
Bipolar Cell activation
When struck by light energy, cones, and rods in the retina generate neural signals that then activate the bipolar cells
True or False: If attributes of new products reminds us of something in the past then we will think it is good. This is even true if the similar attributes is irrelevant to product quality
What are the three aspects of intelligence? (triarchic theory)
Why do we need depth perception?
What do we call the transparent, protective layer that light passes through as it enters the eye?
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Which of the following is most closely associated with hair-like receptors in the semicircular canals? a. Balance. b. Smell. c. Hearing. d. Paine. Touch.