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chapter 5--Behavioral Theories of Learning

chapter 5-8
behavioral learning theories
explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
cognitive learning theories
explanations of learning that focus on mental processes.
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
environment conditions that activate the senses
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that naturally evokes a paricular response
unconditioned response
a behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus
neutral stimuli
stumuli that have no effect on a particular response
conditioned stimulus
a priviously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paiered with an unconditioned response
classical conditioning
the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response
Law of effect
thorndikes' law stating that an act that is followed by a favorable effect is more likely to be repeated in similar situations
operant conditioning
the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurance of behavior
skinner box
an apparatus develped by BF Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments is operant conditioning
pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors
a pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior
primary reinforcer
food, water, or other consequence that satisfy a primary need
secondary reinforcer
a consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer
positive reinforcer
pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior
negative reinforcer
release from an unpleasant situation, give to stregthen behavior
premack principle
rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to rienforce participaiton in less enjoyable activites
intrinsic reinforcers
behavior that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward
extrinsic reinforcers
praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in without them
unpleasent consequences used to weaken behavior
presentation punsishment
an adverse stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again
aversive stimulus
an unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape
removal punishment
withdrawl of a pleasant consequence that is reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chance that the behavior will recur
time out
procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced
the teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal
the weakening and eventural elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn
extinction burst
the increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction
fixed ratio (FR) schedule
rienforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors
variable ratio (VR) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time
variable interval schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time
continuation (of behavior)
antecedent stimuli
events that precede behaviors
signals as to what behavior(s) will be reinforced or punished
perception of and response to differenced in stimuli
carry over of behaviors, skills, or concepts from on setting or task to another
social learning theory
learning theory that emphasizes not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues of thought and of thought on action
imitation of others' behaviors
observational learning
learning by observation and imitation
vicarious learning
learning based on observation of the consequences of other's behavior
self-regulated learning
rewarding or punishing one's own behavior
cognitive behavior modification
procedures based on bothe behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction