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behavioral learning theories
explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
a priviously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paiered with an unconditioned response
the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response
Law of effect
thorndikes' law stating that an act that is followed by a favorable effect is more likely to be repeated in similar situations
the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurance of behavior
an apparatus develped by BF Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments is operant conditioning
pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors
a consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer
rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to rienforce participaiton in less enjoyable activites
behavior that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward
praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in without them
an adverse stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again
withdrawl of a pleasant consequence that is reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chance that the behavior will recur
the teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal
the weakening and eventural elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn
fixed ratio (FR) schedule
rienforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors
variable ratio (VR) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time
variable interval schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time
social learning theory
learning theory that emphasizes not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues of thought and of thought on action
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