hypoxia & cardiac
Interstitial lung diseases stiffness and effects are due to _____(respitory failure) and _____failure?
Linear, reticular, nodular, and reticulonodular
What are the 4 patterns that can be seen in interstitial lung disease?
Sepsis, difuse infection, severe trauma, and oxygen can all lead to _____lung which can be seen in ARDS?
What syndrome is found in premature infants who are deficient in surfactant so they have increase effort in breathing leading to damage cells?
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pneumoconiosis, and connective tissue disease
What are 5 chronic intersitial diseases?
A multisystem granulomatous resulting from exagerated immune response to self antigens or other antigens?
granulomas, macrophages, epitheloid cells, giant cells, and Non caseating granulomas
Name the 5 types of inflamatory cells and t helper cells that arrise in sarcoidosis?
In sarcoidosis 90-95 % of the time the first site involved is _____ of the time 10X more in blacks than whites?
anterior uveitis, posterior uveitis, conjuctivitis
Sarcodois can arrise in the eye 25-30% as _____,______, and _____?
What syndrome is also known as uveoparotid fever, ( facial palsy, fever, uveitis, partoditis)?
Kveim stilzbach test
intradermal injection of homogonized tissue of organs involved with sarcoidosis causing a delayed cutaneous rxn in 4-6 weeks?
What medicine do you give a pt with sarcoidosis with ocular lesions, where posterior segment or ON are threatened?
Lung disease caused by mineral dust (asbestos, coal workers lung, anthracosis, or silicosis).
pleural effusion, exudate, transudate, empyema, chylothorax
What are the 5 different pleural diseases?
What is the most common age related lethal nosocomial infection and the 6th leading cause of death in the US?
viral, bacterial, infections
Pneumonia is caused by ___in children ___in young adults and ___in adults?
lobar, segmental, bronchopneumonia, interstitial
Name the 4 different types of pneumonia based on location?
Pneumococcal (lobar) pneumonia is caused by bacteria in healthy ___demonstrating fluid on one lobe?
atelectasis, lung absess, parapneumoic effusion, bacteremia, & metastatic infects
What are the 5 complications of Pneumonia?
chorioretinitis & uveitis
Most common ocular manifestations of TB include ___and ___ although it can occur anywhere?
___TB where immunosuppressed pt inefction is more aggresive overwhelming immune systmem spreads to lungs and causes pneumoia?
_____ test is a local intradermal injection of proteins looking for red wheal to form 48-72 hrs indurfation?
Localized area of dead lung tissue surounded by inflamatory debri, resulting from periodontal, neoplasms, pneumoia, or other invading microbes?
What is the most common malignancy in the US tumors arrising near hilar area and spreads, has a 5 year survival rate of 12-14%?
Pulmonary metastases are detactable on ___ with common arrival from breast, GI, kidney, and female reproductive systems?
vascular wall, coagulation, and platelets
Hemostasis and thrombosis are dependent on ____, _____, and _____?
If the embolism is in the right side of heart it came from the ___, where as if it affects the left side of the heart it came from the ____?
Lack of bld flow to the brain caused by a clot or rupture of bld vessels leading to sudden brain damage?
10, 15, 75
Out of 100 strokes pts ___will have complete recovery, ___will die, and ____will be permantly disabled?
Brief episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal brain or retinal ischemia, with symptomsm lasting less than 1 hour without acute infarction?
T-PA, merci retriver, penumbra
____clot bursting medication and ___+____ clot removing devices treat ischemic strokes?
oncotic and hydrostatic
To avoid edema in capillaries there should be a balance btwn ___pressure and ___pressure?
32, 15, 25
The capilary hydrostatic pressure for arteriolar end is ___mmHG, at the venous end its ___mmHG and the mean is ____mmHG?
Reduction of colloids(plasma proteins) from Cirrhoiss, liver failure, malnutrition, nephrotic, or catabolic states results in lower ______pressure?
heart failure, deep venous thrombosis, s. vena cava obstruction
___, ___, & ___ will result if hydrostatic pressure is increased at VENOUS end?
Pre-capilary dilatation & Ca channel blockers
____and ____ result form increased hydrostatic pressure at ARTERIAL end?
Increased intersitial oncotic pressures can result in hypoplasia, or obstruction
septic, anaphylatic, & neurogenic
Distributive shock resulting in a decrease in SVR can include _____, ____, and ____ shocks
blood volume, CO, and blood
Shock changes vascular flow by lowering _____and ____and redistributing _____?
HR and vasoconstriction
The non progressive stage of shock the body tries to increase ____and cause _____?
vasodilation & permiability
The irreversible stage of shock includes widespread ____and ____of bld vessels resulting in death of patient?
airway, breathing circulation
In treating shock you want to perform the trendelenburg postiion on patient and think about the ABC's whcih are?
When the brain is squeezed thru foramen magnum ____results causing brainstem to be compressed and patient stops breathing and dies?
maintain perfusion to the brain and prevent lower blood pressure
What is the treatment for a stroke?
high blood pressure
_____is the silent killer and pts may have HA, blurred vision, chest pain, or frequent urination?
HR, duration of stystolic contractions, and direct stimulation of bld vessels
In sympathetic nervous system HTN you have increase ____decrease ________________and direct ______________?
smooth mm contraction, thickening of media, hyaline arteriosclerosis
What are the 3 pathologies of ESSENTIAL HTN?
foam, fatty streaks, intermediate lesions, atheroma, fibrous plaque, complicated lesion/rupture
List the progression of atherosclerosis?
____ enables blood to reach your heart and reduces angina and the risk of a heart attack?
Asymptomatic, stable angina, progressive angina, acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina)
What are the 4 phases of CAD?
____angina is a spasm of the large coronary artery and its accompanied by transmural ischemia?
___angina is a transient impairment of coronary bld supply by vasospasm or platelet aggregation?
___ischemia is very common and often difficult to dx so we use holter monitor and exercise testing?
medical tx, percutaneous intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery
What are the 3 stable angina tx options?
If occlusion persists long enough 20-40 mins than ____myocardial cell damge and cell death will occur?
Blood testing for creatine phosphokinase, troponin, myoglobin, and C reactive protein changes found in samples over time represent how much heart mm has _____?
Expedient restoration of normal coronary bld flow and max salvage of functional myocardium is the goal of ____?
stress test, implantable cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac rehabilitation
What are three post MI mangement options?
_____is a manifestation of RCM that has abnormal mitral inflow patterns with a prominent E wave and increased LA pressure?
90 % of pts with HCM will have ____ while 75% will have ____ plus fatigue, pre syncope, and synscope.