27 terms

Cytology

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Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Nucleus
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Ribosome
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Chloroplast
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell that regulates what enters the cell based on size and charge.
Centrioles
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
cell wall
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
Rough ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted and requiring energy.
Chromatin
loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
Nucleolus
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
Smooth ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes and is responsible for lipid synthesis
Prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells & contain genetic information (DNA)
Organelle
A specialized structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
Vacuole
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Golgi body
modifies and packages proteins and other material to be exported
Hypertonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solute
Hypotonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solute
Isotonic
when comparing two solutions, the concentrations of solute are equal
Endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Exocytosis
a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.