107 terms

# Chapter 7

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Continuous spectrum
a continuous color pattern that is separated from a beam of sunlight passing through a prism.
Line spectrum
a spectrum containing only discrete lines of different colors
Electromagnetic spectrum
consists of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths (or frequencies)
1 Hz =
1/s
What are waves propagating through space?
Amplitude
the height of a wave
The amplitude of light determines what?
Brightness (the larger the amplitude, the brighter the light)
Wavelength
the crest-to-crest distance between waves
The wavelength of light determines what?
It's color
Frequency
the number of complete cycles the light wave makes per second
Wavelength symbol
λ
Frequency symbol
v
Equation showing the relationship between wavelength and frequency
(v) x (λ) = c
c =
speed of light in a vacuum
What is the speed of light in vacuum?
3.0 x 108 m/s
The shorter the wavelength, the ____________ the frequency
higher
The longer the wavelength, the _____________ the frequency
lower
nano
10-9
micro
10-6
1 nm = ?m
10-9
1 micrometer = ?m
10-6
Frequency is measured in what unit (v)?
Hertz (Hz)
Wavelength is measured in what unit (λ)?
Meters (m)
Speed of light is measured in what unit (c)?
m/s
Quantum Theory
energy of electromagnetic radiation is quantized (consisting something continuously)
Electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in small packets of energy called what?
Quantum or photons
"Quantum" or "photons"
smallest quantity of energy
What is the formula to find energy of one quantum (photon)?
E = hv
When finding energy of quantum (or photon), what does h stand for?
Planck's constant (6.63 x 10-34 J-s
When finding energy of quantum (or photon), what does v stand for?
What is the consistant property of the numbers when stating how much evergy is absored or emitted in quantums (or photons)?
They are whole-number multiples of hv (Ex: 2 or 3, not 1.67 or 4.98)
When calculating the energy of a photon (quantum), what equation is used to find frequency?
v = c/λ (frequency = the speed of light / wavelength of radiation
n is used to represent what?
The number of a particular orbital
The orbit number (n) is found by looking at what?
The period (or row) number on the periodic table (1-7, going down)
When an electron is in an orbit further away from the nucleus, it has a(n) _________ energy than when it is in an orbit closer to the nucleus.
higher
When an electron is in an orbit closer to the nucleus, it has a(n) _________ energy than when it is in an orbit further away from the nucleus.
Lower
Where are the electrons when it is said to be in an excited state?
Further away from the nucleus
Orbital
region inside an atom where electrons are most likely to be found 90% of the time
What is the difference between an orbit and an orbital? Which one does an electron follow?
orbit is a direct path of an electron around a specific atom. an orbital is a region where the electron is most likely to be found. All electrons follow an orbital (other than Hydrogen)
When an electron is in the orbit closes to the nucleus, it is said to be in the __________ state.
Ground
According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain the energy absorbed or released when an electron stays in an orbit (ground state or excited state)
no energy will be emitted
According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain what happens when an electron jumps from an orbit with a higher energy to an orbit with a lower energy
energy will be emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation
According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, what is determined by the energy difference between the final state and the initial state?
The frequency (or wavelength) of the electromagnetic radiation
The Bohr model of atomic spectra only explains/applies to what element?
Hydrogen
Which model best describes how the electrons really exist in an atom: Bohr Model or Quantum Mechanical Model?
Quantum Mechanical Model. (Bohr's model only holds true for Hydrogen)
It is impossible to simultaneously determine the exact ____________ and the exact ___________ of a subatomic particle.
position and velocity
Why can we only determine probability of the velocity and location of an electron?
Electrons have wave-like behaviors
The four quantum numbers describes what?
Describes the electrons and the atomic orbitals that they are in
What are the 4 quantum numbers?
n, l, ml and ms
When determining quantum numbers, what does 'n' stand for?
Principal quantum number - The number of a particular orbitals
When determining quantum numbers, what does principal quantum number (n) determine?
The energy and size of the orbital
When determining quantum numbers, what does 'l' stand for and what does it determine?
Angular Momentum Quantum Number - The shape of the orbitals
What are the possible 'l' values associated with 'n'?
0-3
If n = 1, what are the possible l values?
0
If n = 2, what are the possible l values?
0,1
If n = 3, what are the possible l values?
0,1,2
If n = 4, what are the possible l values?
0,1,2,3
What are electron shells?
A collection of orbitals with the same principal quantum number (n)
When determining the quantum number 'l', what are the orbitals assigned to each possible l value?
0=s, 1=p, 2=d, 3=f
What are sub-shells?
A type of orbital (s, p, d, f, etc.) within a principal energy level
How are the sub-shells found and how do you express them?
Given n and l values, sub-shells can be designated with a number and a letter
When determining quantum numbers, what does 'ml' determine?
The orientation of the orbital in space
The value of 'ml' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?
'l' (angular momentum quantum number)
What are all the possible values of 'ml'?
-1, 0, 1+ (when only dealing with main elements)
Which sub-shell is designated when l=0?
s
Which sub-shell is designated when l=1?
p
Which sub-shell is designated when l=2?
d
Which sub-shell is designated when l=3?
f
What are the possible values for the 's' sub-shells?
0 (contains 1 orbital)
What are the possible values for the 'p' sub-shells?
+1, 0, -1 (contains 3 orbitals)
What are the possible values for the 'd' sub-shells?
+2, +1, 0, -1, -2 (contains 5 orbitals)
What are the possible values for the 'f' sub-shells?
+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3 (contains 7 orbitals)
When determining quantum numbers, what does 'ms' indicate?
Direction of electron spin
When determining spin of electron, an arrow pointing up means
+1/2
When determining spin of electrons, an arrow pointing down means
-1/2
The value of 'l' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?
'n' (principal quantum number)
Each orientation represents a different...
atomic orbital
Each 's' sub-shell has how many orbitals?
1
Each 'p' sub-shell has how many orbitals?
3
Each 'd' sub-shell has how many orbitals?
5
d orbitals have how many different orientations?
5
What is the difference between an electron shell and a sub-shell?
shell is when electrons have same value of 'n', sub-shell is when electrons have same values of 'n' and 'l'
What are the three rules for electron configuration?
1) electrons occupy lower-energy orbitals first before occupying higher-energy orbitals. 2) (Pauli exclusion principle) no more than two electrons can occupy one orbital and two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite direction of spins. 3) (Hund's Rule) the most stable arrangement of electrons in the same subshell has the largest number of unpaired electrons, all with the same direction of spon
Valence electrons
electrons in the outermost electron shell of an atom
Core electrons
the electrons in the inner electron shells of an atom
What are the electron configuration designated orbital letters of the periodic table?
Columns 1 and 2 = s orbital, columns 2 through 8 = p orbital, transition metals = d orbitals
How many electrons can the d orbital hold?
10
How many electrons can the p orbital hold?
6
How many electrons can the s orbital hold?
2
Elements in the same group have different or the same valence electron configuration?
Same
Atomic radii increases or decreases as you go down a period?
Increases
Atomic radii increases or decreases as you go across a period (left to right)?
Decrease
Cations are smaller or larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?
Smaller
Anions are smaller or larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?
Larger
True
Why are Cations smaller than their corresponding neutral atoms?
Because neutral atoms lose electrons to form cations
Why are Anions larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?
Because neutral atoms gain electrons to form anions
Ionic bond is the ________ force between a cation and an anion.
Electrostatic
_________ bonds typically form between metals and non-metals.
Ionic
During an ionic bond, are electrons shared or transferred between each atom?
Transferred
Covalent (molecular) bonds form between what type of elements?
Non-metals
Which specific element does the octet rule not apply?
Hydrogen
What is the formula used to find the formal charge of an atom?
(# of valence e-) - (# of lone pair e-) - ½(# of bonding electrons)
Singe bond
two atoms share one pair of electrons (each single bond has 2 electrons)
Double bond
two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons (each double bond has 4 electrons) - shorter and stronger than single bond
Triple bond
two atoms sharing three pairs of electrons (each triple bond has 6 electrons) - shorter and stronger than double bond
Resonant Structures
all the possible structures when two or more Lewis structures can be drawn for the same compound with multiple bonds