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Continuous spectrum

a continuous color pattern that is separated from a beam of sunlight passing through a prism.

Line spectrum

a spectrum containing only discrete lines of different colors

Electromagnetic spectrum

consists of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths (or frequencies)

1 Hz =

1/s

What are waves propagating through space?

electromagnetic radiation

Amplitude

the height of a wave

The amplitude of light determines what?

Brightness (the larger the amplitude, the brighter the light)

Wavelength

the crest-to-crest distance between waves

The wavelength of light determines what?

It's color

Frequency

the number of complete cycles the light wave makes per second

Wavelength symbol

λ

Frequency symbol

v

Equation showing the relationship between wavelength and frequency

(v) x (λ) = c

c =

speed of light in a vacuum

What is the speed of light in vacuum?

3.0 x 108 m/s

The shorter the wavelength, the ____________ the frequency

higher

The longer the wavelength, the _____________ the frequency

lower

nano

10-9

micro

10-6

1 nm = ?m

10-9

1 micrometer = ?m

10-6

Frequency is measured in what unit (v)?

Hertz (Hz)

Wavelength is measured in what unit (λ)?

Meters (m)

Speed of light is measured in what unit (c)?

m/s

Quantum Theory

energy of electromagnetic radiation is quantized (consisting something continuously)

Electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in small packets of energy called what?

Quantum or photons

"Quantum" or "photons"

smallest quantity of energy

What is the formula to find energy of one quantum (photon)?

E = hv

When finding energy of quantum (or photon), what does h stand for?

Planck's constant (6.63 x 10-34 J-s

When finding energy of quantum (or photon), what does v stand for?

Frequency of the radiation

What is the consistant property of the numbers when stating how much evergy is absored or emitted in quantums (or photons)?

They are whole-number multiples of hv (Ex: 2 or 3, not 1.67 or 4.98)

When calculating the energy of a photon (quantum), what equation is used to find frequency?

v = c/λ (frequency = the speed of light / wavelength of radiation

n is used to represent what?

The number of a particular orbital

The orbit number (n) is found by looking at what?

The period (or row) number on the periodic table (1-7, going down)

When an electron is in an orbit further away from the nucleus, it has a(n) _________ energy than when it is in an orbit closer to the nucleus.

higher

When an electron is in an orbit closer to the nucleus, it has a(n) _________ energy than when it is in an orbit further away from the nucleus.

Lower

Where are the electrons when it is said to be in an excited state?

Further away from the nucleus

Orbital

region inside an atom where electrons are most likely to be found 90% of the time

What is the difference between an orbit and an orbital? Which one does an electron follow?

orbit is a direct path of an electron around a specific atom. an orbital is a region where the electron is most likely to be found. All electrons follow an orbital (other than Hydrogen)

When an electron is in the orbit closes to the nucleus, it is said to be in the __________ state.

Ground

According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain the energy absorbed or released when an electron stays in an orbit (ground state or excited state)

no energy will be emitted

According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain what happens when an electron jumps from an orbit with a higher energy to an orbit with a lower energy

energy will be emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation

According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, what is determined by the energy difference between the final state and the initial state?

The frequency (or wavelength) of the electromagnetic radiation

The Bohr model of atomic spectra only explains/applies to what element?

Hydrogen

Which model best describes how the electrons really exist in an atom: Bohr Model or Quantum Mechanical Model?

Quantum Mechanical Model. (Bohr's model only holds true for Hydrogen)

It is impossible to simultaneously determine the exact ____________ and the exact ___________ of a subatomic particle.

position and velocity

Why can we only determine probability of the velocity and location of an electron?

Electrons have wave-like behaviors

The four quantum numbers describes what?

Describes the electrons and the atomic orbitals that they are in

What are the 4 quantum numbers?

n, l, ml and ms

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'n' stand for?

Principal quantum number - The number of a particular orbitals

When determining quantum numbers, what does principal quantum number (n) determine?

The energy and size of the orbital

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'l' stand for and what does it determine?

Angular Momentum Quantum Number - The shape of the orbitals

What are the possible 'l' values associated with 'n'?

0-3

If n = 1, what are the possible l values?

0

If n = 2, what are the possible l values?

0,1

If n = 3, what are the possible l values?

0,1,2

If n = 4, what are the possible l values?

0,1,2,3

What are electron shells?

A collection of orbitals with the same principal quantum number (n)

When determining the quantum number 'l', what are the orbitals assigned to each possible l value?

0=s, 1=p, 2=d, 3=f

What are sub-shells?

A type of orbital (s, p, d, f, etc.) within a principal energy level

How are the sub-shells found and how do you express them?

Given n and l values, sub-shells can be designated with a number and a letter

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'ml' determine?

The orientation of the orbital in space

The value of 'ml' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?

'l' (angular momentum quantum number)

What are all the possible values of 'ml'?

-1, 0, 1+ (when only dealing with main elements)

Which sub-shell is designated when l=0?

s

Which sub-shell is designated when l=1?

p

Which sub-shell is designated when l=2?

d

Which sub-shell is designated when l=3?

f

What are the possible values for the 's' sub-shells?

0 (contains 1 orbital)

What are the possible values for the 'p' sub-shells?

+1, 0, -1 (contains 3 orbitals)

What are the possible values for the 'd' sub-shells?

+2, +1, 0, -1, -2 (contains 5 orbitals)

What are the possible values for the 'f' sub-shells?

+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3 (contains 7 orbitals)

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'ms' indicate?

Direction of electron spin

When determining spin of electron, an arrow pointing up means

+1/2

When determining spin of electrons, an arrow pointing down means

-1/2

The value of 'l' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?

'n' (principal quantum number)

Each orientation represents a different...

atomic orbital

Each 's' sub-shell has how many orbitals?

1

Each 'p' sub-shell has how many orbitals?

3

Each 'd' sub-shell has how many orbitals?

5

d orbitals have how many different orientations?

5

What is the difference between an electron shell and a sub-shell?

shell is when electrons have same value of 'n', sub-shell is when electrons have same values of 'n' and 'l'

What are the three rules for electron configuration?

1) electrons occupy lower-energy orbitals first before occupying higher-energy orbitals. 2) (Pauli exclusion principle) no more than two electrons can occupy one orbital and two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite direction of spins. 3) (Hund's Rule) the most stable arrangement of electrons in the same subshell has the largest number of unpaired electrons, all with the same direction of spon

Valence electrons

electrons in the outermost electron shell of an atom

Core electrons

the electrons in the inner electron shells of an atom

What are the electron configuration designated orbital letters of the periodic table?

Columns 1 and 2 = s orbital, columns 2 through 8 = p orbital, transition metals = d orbitals

How many electrons can the d orbital hold?

10

How many electrons can the p orbital hold?

6

How many electrons can the s orbital hold?

2

Elements in the same group have different or the same valence electron configuration?

Same

Atomic radii increases or decreases as you go down a period?

Increases

Atomic radii increases or decreases as you go across a period (left to right)?

Decrease

Cations are smaller or larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Smaller

Anions are smaller or larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Larger

Ionic Radii follow the same periodic trend as the atomic radii. True or False?

True

Why are Cations smaller than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Because neutral atoms lose electrons to form cations

Why are Anions larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Because neutral atoms gain electrons to form anions

Ionic bond is the ________ force between a cation and an anion.

Electrostatic

_________ bonds typically form between metals and non-metals.

Ionic

During an ionic bond, are electrons shared or transferred between each atom?

Transferred

Covalent (molecular) bonds form between what type of elements?

Non-metals

Which specific element does the octet rule not apply?

Hydrogen

What is the formula used to find the formal charge of an atom?

(# of valence e-) - (# of lone pair e-) - ½(# of bonding electrons)

Singe bond

two atoms share one pair of electrons (each single bond has 2 electrons)

Double bond

two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons (each double bond has 4 electrons) - shorter and stronger than single bond

Triple bond

two atoms sharing three pairs of electrons (each triple bond has 6 electrons) - shorter and stronger than double bond

Resonant Structures

all the possible structures when two or more Lewis structures can be drawn for the same compound with multiple bonds