27-96 CE, under the rule of Augustus; Pax Romano (longest stretch of European peace ever)
Early Empire Art
Early Empire: Detail of the procession of the Imperial Family from Ara Pacis Augustae (like festival procession from Parthenon; all different ages reflects legacy of empire which continues the wealthy to have more children to continue empire, which is propaganda)
Early Empire: Rome as a mother, a provider (edible animals, vase w/ probably water, wheat that's spilling in abundance)
Early Empire: Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, 64-68 CE (usually emperors lived on Palatine Hill, but he built his own villa)
it had a dome (one of the first) and gold & jewels in the walls
what was special about Nero's Golden House?
series of walls like amphitheater in Pompeii, arches for entrance/exit & movement; animals & gladiators housed under the stage; first covered arena
what was the Colosseum like?
arch flanked by two engaged columns (from Etruscan era); goes from Doric to Ionic to Corinthian as you go up
special architectural feature of Colosseum
Early Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome, 81 CE (post & lintel; cement covered by marble); has a "billboard" on the top dedicated to Nike
Early Empire: Triumph of Titus, relief panel from his arch (Titus is in his chariot, pulled by 4 horses; Nike holding a crown over him, Apollo in front=he's more important than, or at least on same level, as them which was never done before)
Temple of Trajan in the back, column of Trajan in the middle surrounded by libraries, Basilica Ulpia in front of that, Forum the big space in the middle with the Equestrian horse of Trajan
Features of the Forum of Trajan
High Empire: Basilica Ulpia (large open covered building w/ NAVE in the center flanked by AISLES; altars the round things on the side)
High Empire: inside of Basilica Ulpia (relates to Gk temples, but colonnades on inside; everyone could experience it; interior more important than or as important as exterior; natural light)
High Empire: Column of Trajan, 112 (originally Trajan or a pagan god on the top, but now it's St. Peter)
High Empire: Facade on column of Trajan (narrative of victories-continuous register that spirals up)
High Empire: Trajan's Market (high end, at the bottom of a hill, arch was the hill's retaining wall-using it in new ways)
barrel vault, groin vault, fenestrated sequence of groin vaults, hemispherical dome with oculus
High Empire: Hadrian (BEARDED!=change in fashion; Roman soldiers before couldn't have long hair (protection) or facial hair (barbarians had beards); he was well liked) connects back to Pericles
High Empire: Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli Italy, 125-8 CE (in the hills, like a college campus, designed a lot of it himself)
High Empire: Pantheon: pediment & columns from Greeks, Etruscan porch, sorta like the Treasury of Atreus (corbelled beehive) but NO PRECURSOR!;
& explain its influences
columns are made of one single block; drum, thick walls are key to creating dome, which was a spun arch & could withstand a lot of pressure; oculus on the top
Explain the architecture of the Pantheon
oculus (hole in the top), coffered ceiling (the indentations), drum (top, round part)
parts of the Pantheon
direct your eye upward, make material lighter, gives ceiling volume & accentuate its roundness
the purpose of the coffered ceiling
oculus leads to sky, so light becomes symbolic of the gods; 1st of its kind in that way
thematic elements of the Pantheon
interior space! Egyptian clerestory, Pantheon external perfection, Nero's golden house, fenestrated sequence of groin vaults, basilica ulpia
Parthenon was the culmination of the movement towards... ; examples?
common peoples' houses (i.e. w/ cafe on bottom, houses on top)--emerging power; loosening of rules
what kind of architecture became more important during the High Empire?
High Empire: Funerary Relief of Circus official (obelisk, golden fish in background, horses & charioteer; palm leaf=victory; holding wife's hand although dead)
more bobblehead than Roman or Greek ideal; factual, hierarchical scale--not really a sense of proportion; lower class work b/c upper class works were more complex, realistic, idyllic w/ fabric, bodies, drama because they had more money to afford a talented artist
how does the Funerary Relief of Circus official demonstrate changing styles?
High Empire: this work relates back to Etruscan, because it's a sarcophagus and those people are classical
if you see a sarcophagus with people embedded in arches, you say...
his beard & hair, he's holding the reins w/ ONE hand and he's larger than it although it's strong; other hand is holding a ball which shows his universal power; other hand is talking to the masses)
how does the statue of Marcus Aurelius demonstrate his power?
High Empire: Apotheosis (ascension to heaven) of Antoninus Pius and wife Faustina; base of column of Antoninus Pius (people are classical, wings like Nike)
High Empire: Decursio, column of Antoninus Pius (not Greeklike; lack of groundline; proportion & perspective skewed; head bigger than rest of body/look squat=STYLE OF LOWER CLASSES BECOMING MORE ACCEPTED)
Late Empire: Painted Portrait of Septimius Severus & family from Egypt, tempura on wood (the brother on the right won power, scratched out his brother's face in everything)
Late Empire: Mausoleum under construction, late 1st century (perspective not fluid)
relief: temple looking thing with people around it
Late Empire: Baths of Caracalla (made by emperor for citizens' happiness, rich or poor)-where ideas were exchanged, people spent the day
Late Empire: baths: fenestrated sequence of groin vaults (so light can come in), coffered ceilings; trumps Trajan's market and leads to church architecture later
Late Empire: Portrait of the 4 tetrarchs, from Constantinople (short & squat, looks like diorite; all share power because are embracing and all have swords-empire was divided into 4 parts)
Late Empire: Portrait of Constantine (who unified the empire one last time, legalized Christianity, converted on deathbed=lowerclass= lowerclass imagery more accepted )-from Basilica
Late Empire: Arch of Constantine, 312-315 CE (triple arch, takes us from end of Roman era to Medieval times!! reliefs important!!)
Late Empire: Circle reliefs: more Greek (sculpture had lost flavor, so they brought earlier Roman works & put them here); registers: disproportionate, constructed at the time
it was the last major work of the Roman empire, and it connected that with Medieval work
why is the arch of constantine so dang important?