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RNA world hypothesis

the idea that RNA systems self-replicated in previous ages and evolved into the current genetic duplication processes we have now

chemical natural selection

ribosome replication not accurate, select for ribosome variants that are better at linking nucleotides

Semi-autonomous organelles

mitochondria and chloroplasts; contains come of their own DNA, RNA, and ribosomes, reproduce in cells by fission, resemble free-living bacteria


produce chemical energy from sugars and other compounds


in plants and some protists, site for energy production from sunlight


theory for semi-autonomous organelles


organisms living together in direct and intimate contact


strands of chromosomes


sites of rRNA synthesis, assembly of large & small ribosomal subunits

nuclear pore

active transport complex of many types of proteins

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