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30 terms

Biology (H) / Schaal - Ch 5 (Cell Structure and Function)

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hooke (robert)
scientist who coined the term "cell"
schwann (theodor)
scientist who discovered the importance of the cell wall
schleiden (matthias)
scientist who discovered the cytoplasm and nucleus are important parts of the cell
virchow (rudolph)
Austrian pathologist who came up with the basis of the cell theory
cell theory (modern)
every living organism is made of one or more cells
cells are the functional units of life
all cells arise from pre-existing cells
cellular life
all cells obtain energy and nutrients from their environment
all cells make molecules necessary for growth and repair
all cells dispose of wastes
all cells interact with other cells
all cells reproduce
dna
instructions for making cellular structures and reproducing
cytoplasm
all material inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus
all cells
plasma membrane, DNA, cytoplasm
prokartyotic
bacteria cells, DNA in nucleoid, no nucleus, cell wall, ribosomes
5- um
eukaryotic
plants / animals / fungi / protists
DNA in nucleus
contains organelles
10+ um
nucleus
center of cell, control center
nuclear envelope / nuclear membrane
selective exchange of materials happens here
chromatin
DNA and associated proteins
nucleolus
ribosome assembly
er (endoplasmic reticulum)
folded membranes attached to the nucleus
proteins packaged into vesicles and sent to Golgi complex
smooth er
lipid synthesis (phospholipids and cholesterol)
rough er
contains ribosome that synthesize proteins
golgi complex
membranous sacs derived from Endoplasmic reticulum
vesicles from ER fuse to Golgi and empty contents, new sacs bud off opposite end
sorts out proteins and lipids, packages / modifies molecules
lysosome
cellular digestive system, made in golgi complex, have digestive enzymes, digest food / defective organelles
chloroplasts and mitochondria
thought to have evolved from bacteria, oblong, 1-5 um, double membrane on exterior, make ATP, have own DNA
mitochondria
cellular powerhouses of plants and animals
cellular respiration (sugar to ATP)
chloroplast
plants and unicellular algae
photosynthesis for energy
plastid
double membrane organelles found in plants
photosynthesize, store pigments, store sugars
central vacuole
single-membrane bound sacs found in plants
water regulation, store food / waste, cell support
microfilament
thin protein fibers allowing contraction and organelle movement by sliding
intermediate filament
permanent framework for shape and anchoring
microtubule
this protein fibers; permanent and transitory structures
cilia
eyelash - short numerous move parallel to cell membrane (powered by ATP)
flagella
whip - long, few in number, move perpendicularly to cell membrane (powered by ATP)