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hooke (robert)

scientist who coined the term "cell"

schwann (theodor)

scientist who discovered the importance of the cell wall

schleiden (matthias)

scientist who discovered the cytoplasm and nucleus are important parts of the cell

virchow (rudolph)

Austrian pathologist who came up with the basis of the cell theory

cell theory (modern)

every living organism is made of one or more cells
cells are the functional units of life
all cells arise from pre-existing cells

cellular life

all cells obtain energy and nutrients from their environment
all cells make molecules necessary for growth and repair
all cells dispose of wastes
all cells interact with other cells
all cells reproduce


instructions for making cellular structures and reproducing


all material inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus

all cells

plasma membrane, DNA, cytoplasm


bacteria cells, DNA in nucleoid, no nucleus, cell wall, ribosomes
5- um


plants / animals / fungi / protists
DNA in nucleus
contains organelles
10+ um


center of cell, control center

nuclear envelope / nuclear membrane

selective exchange of materials happens here


DNA and associated proteins


ribosome assembly

er (endoplasmic reticulum)

folded membranes attached to the nucleus
proteins packaged into vesicles and sent to Golgi complex

smooth er

lipid synthesis (phospholipids and cholesterol)

rough er

contains ribosome that synthesize proteins

golgi complex

membranous sacs derived from Endoplasmic reticulum
vesicles from ER fuse to Golgi and empty contents, new sacs bud off opposite end
sorts out proteins and lipids, packages / modifies molecules


cellular digestive system, made in golgi complex, have digestive enzymes, digest food / defective organelles

chloroplasts and mitochondria

thought to have evolved from bacteria, oblong, 1-5 um, double membrane on exterior, make ATP, have own DNA


cellular powerhouses of plants and animals
cellular respiration (sugar to ATP)


plants and unicellular algae
photosynthesis for energy


double membrane organelles found in plants
photosynthesize, store pigments, store sugars

central vacuole

single-membrane bound sacs found in plants
water regulation, store food / waste, cell support


thin protein fibers allowing contraction and organelle movement by sliding

intermediate filament

permanent framework for shape and anchoring


this protein fibers; permanent and transitory structures


eyelash - short numerous move parallel to cell membrane (powered by ATP)


whip - long, few in number, move perpendicularly to cell membrane (powered by ATP)

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