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Biology 213 Exam 3 Chapter 7
Terms in this set (19)
-scientist who was the first to say in 1909 that genes determine phenotype through the production of enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions; diseases caused by missing enzymes are "inborn errors of metabolism"
-alcaptonuria, a genetic defect that is blocked in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Beadle and Tatum
-Used Neurospora (bread mold) to screen for mutations that resulted in spores that needed a nutrition supplement to grow—identified enzymes required for synthesis of specific nutrients, e.g. vitamins.
-One gene-one enzyme (one gene-one polypeptide)
used tryptic digests to show that a GluVal mutation in hemoglobin was responsible for sickle cell anemia
Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod
-discovered the role of mRNA in protein synthesis
-Operon Hypothesis- 1965 Nobel - Regulation of gene expression
transcribes DNA into RNA in 5' to 3' direction
messanger RNAs (mRNAs)
code for proteins
ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)
form the core of the ribosome's structure and catalyze protein synthesis
regulate gene expression
transfer RNAs (tRNAs)
serve as adaptors between mRNA and amino acids during protein synthesis
other noncoding RNAs
used in RNA splicing, gene regulation, telomere maintenance, and many other processes
RNA polymerase I (Pol I)
transcribe nuclear genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA polymerase II (Pol II)
-transcribe nuclear genes for mRNA and small nuclear RNAs
-all protein-coding genes, miRNA genes, plus genes for other noncoding RNAs (those in spliceosomes)
RNA polymerase III (Pol III)
transcribe nuclear genes for tRNAs, 5S rRNA genes, genes for other small RNAs
DNA sequence located upstream 5' of the gene coding sequence that mediates transcriptional initiation
Collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
-contain small nuclear RNA and multiple proteins
-allow for splicesome to occur
identified the codons that specify each amino acid
First tRNA sequence - 1968 Nobel with Nirenberg and Khorana
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Biology 213 Exam 3 Chapter 5
Biology 213 Exam 3 Chapter 6
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