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Science- Ch 7
Terms in this set (24)
Define solution and give an example.
A well mixed mixture (a homogeneous mixture) that contains a solvent and at least one solute. Vinegar is a solution.
Define solvent and give an example.
The part of the solution present in the largest amount; the stuff the solute is dissolved in; the stuff that does the dissolving. Water is the solvent in salt water. Water is the solvent in vinegar
Define solute and give an example.
The part of the solution present in the smaller amount; the stuff that is dissolved. Salt is the solute in salt water. Acetic acid is the solute in vinegar.
What is the universal solvent?
Water because it dissolves so many substances.
Solutions can be made from any combinations of
solids, liquids, or gases.
Define colloid and give an example.
A mixture that contains small undissolved particles that do
not settle out. Jell-O, fog, milk, mayo, shaving cream, whipped cream
Define suspension and give an example.
A mixture in which the particles are easily seen and can
be separated by physical means such as filtration or by allowing them to settle to the bottom.
Pepper and water, sand and water
Compare and contrast solution, colloid, and suspension
A solution contains particles that are
too small to see and the solution is uniform throughout. Every sample of solution is just like every other sample of that same solution. A colloid contains particles that are larger than the particles in a solution but are still too small to see. The particles are big enough to scatter light. The particles appear to be dissolved and will not settle out . A suspension contains particles that are big enough to see easily and that can be separated by physical means. Every sample of a suspension is different for every other sample of that same suspension
How does the solute affect the freezing point and boiling point of the solvent?
A solute lowers the freezing point and raises the boiling point of the solvent.
How does adding coolant to a car's radiator protect the car?
Adding the solute (the coolant) lowers the freezing point and raises the boiling point to protect the car's radiator from freezing or from overheating.
When you add blue food coloring to water, have you made a solution or a suspension? Explain your answer.
A solution because the mixture is the same throughout and the particles of food coloring can't be easily seen or separated by physical means.
Define dilute solution and give an example.
A dilute solution has only a small amount of solute dissolved in the solvent. Adding too much water to lemonade powder.
Define concentrated solution and give an example.
A concentrated solution has a large amount of solute dissolved in the solvent. Frozen fruit juice in a can before you add water.
How can you change the concentration of a solution?
You can change the concentration by changing the amount of solute added to the solvent OR by changing the amount of solvent that you use.
A measure of how much solute will dissolve in a certain amount of solvent at a certain temperature.
Define saturated solution.
A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in the solvent at a certain temperature. You can't add any more and get it to dissolve.
Define unsaturated solution.
An unsaturated solution will dissolve more solute.
What three factors affect solubility?
temperature, pressure, and type of solvent
How does pressure affect solubility?
If you increase the pressure, more solute will dissolve. If
you decrease the pressure, less solute will dissolve.
What does "like dissolves like" mean?
Polar solutes will dissolve in polar solvents. Nonpolar
solutes will dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
How does temperature affect solubility of a solid?
Increasing the temperature increases the
solubility of a solid. More solid will dissolve if the temp is raised.
How does temperature affect solubility of a gas?
Increasing the temperature decreases the
solubility of a gas. That's why the "fizz" escapes from a warm soft drink faster than from a cold
soft drink. It does not stay dissolved.
What is a supersaturated solution?
A supersaturated solution contains more than the maximum
amount of solute that would be predicted for it.
How do you make a supersaturated solution?
Heat the solution and keep adding solute. Let the
solution cool slowly. If you knock the solution or drop something into it or try to add a little more solute, the extra dissolved solute will come out of solution.
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