Honors Biology - Unit 3 Test
Terms in this set (70)
A property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms.
Energy that is stored and held in readiness.
The energy an object has due to its motion.
Law of Conservation of Energy
The law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another and transferred between objects.
A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.
Organic compounds, mainly being carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and amino acids.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule that transfers chemical energy from the breakdown (catabolism) of food. Carries energy for cell use. Used for building molecules (anabolism), moving materials by active transport, etc.
Most Important Energy Source (Caron-Based Molecule)
Carbohydrates and lipids provide the most energy to humans and animals.
The basic unit of structure and function in living things.
Parts of ATP Molecule
Adenine, ribose, phosphate groups.
Cause of Release of Energy of ATP Molecule
Phosphate group is removed, releasing the energy for cell use (very unstable and easily broken).
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed, and which comes from ATP with the removal of its phosphate group (lower energy molecule than ATP)
ATP to ADP Cycle
ATP loses the phosphate group, which releases the chemical energy and turns the molecule into ADP, which contains less energy. ADP is turned back into ATP with the addition of the phosphate group (requires complex group of proteins to help).
Any nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink, or that plants absorb, in order to maintain life and growth.
Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used.
A unit of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it receives from food
Break Down of Glucose
Makes 36 molecules of ATP.
A large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride. Most fats function as energy-storage molecules.
Amount of Energy Stored as Fat in Body
About 80% of energy in the body is stored as fat.
An energy-rich compound made up of a single molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid. Also part of a fat used in the body.
The breakdown of triglyceride yields approximately 146 ATP molecules.
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells. Less likely to be broken down for energy use. Amino acids used to build up new ones.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. Occurs in chloroplasts of plant cells in leaves and uses water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide to produce sugar and oxygen. Used for plants to make ATP molecules.
Reactants of Photosynthesis
Water, oxygen and sunlight.
Products of Photosynthesis
Energy (glucose), and oxygen.
Process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates.
An area where ocean water sinks through cracks in the ocean floor, is heated by the underlying magma, and rises again through the cracks (creating energy).
An organism that makes its own food.
An organism that cannot make its own food.
Electromagnetic radiation that can be seen with the unaided eye. (type of light used by plants in photosynthesis)
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs.
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria, vital to operation of photosynthesis in absorption of light.
Only pigment that can participate directly in the light reactions, absorbs mostly red wavelengths.
An accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to Chlorophyll B, absorbs mostly blue wavelengths.
The stacks of thylakoids embedded in the stroma of a chloroplast.
A thin covering of tissue
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. Membranes contain chlorophyll.
Fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids.
Reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH. Occurs within and across membrane of thylakoids. Water and sunlight are needed.
Light-collecting units of the chloroplast. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight.
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin Cycle. Energy is used from light-dependent reactions. Molecule of simple sugar (glucose) from 6 carbon dioxide molecules.
Photosynthesis Stage One
Takes place in thylakoids and grana, light-dependent reaction. Converts light energy into chemical energy. Water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide go in, glucose and oxygen come out. (carbon dioxide contributes to majority of mass of plant)
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
Ocean Oxygen Production
70% of oxygen comes from single-celled organisms in the ocean.
The part of a plant that is responsible for photosynthesis and the absorption of some water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. Major area of food production for the plant.
Outermost layer of skin, makes up leaves and connects the sections of a leaf together.
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing (as well as produce them).
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
Layer of tall, column-shaped mesophyll cells just under the upper epidermis of a leaf.
Loose tissue beneath the palisade layer of a leaf; has many air spaces between its cells.
Support the leaf and are filled with vessels that transport food, water, and minerals to the plant.
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. The reactants are sugar and oxygen, while the products are carbon dioxide and water. Requires oxygen. Takes place in mitochondria.
The breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid. 6-carbon glucose broken into 3-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. Makes four ATP molecules, using two.
The three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis.
Process that does not require oxygen.
Cellular Respiration Equation
Second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production.
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge.
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP. Produces a total of 36 ATP molecules, and makes enzymes required for the process.
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things.
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Compared
Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration
Uses water Gives off water
Uses carbon dioxide Gives off carbon dioxide
Makes glucose Breaks down glucose
Gives off oxygen Uses oxygen
Takes energy from sun Releases energy
Occurs in chloroplast Occurs in mitochondria
Occurs in plants,
protists Occurs in all organisms
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen. Is anaerobic and does not produce ATP, NAD+ recycled to glycolysis.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
The chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product.
The anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol.
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