The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war (Being able to easily mobilize troops)
What did militarism increase?
Who belonged to the Triple Alliance?
Germany, Austria-Hungrary, and Italy
How did the Triple Alliance form?
Formed because Germany wanted to maintain the peace of Europe after becoming satisfied with the unification of Germany. Bismarck saw that France was the greatest threat to peace, because they thought France wanted revenge for it's defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. The alliance was made to prevent France from having allies.
Why did Germany's foreign policy change and what happened?
In 1890, Kaiser Wilheim II had forced Bismarck to resign because he didn't want to share his power with anyone. He wanted to assert his power and show the world how mighty Germany had become, so the army was his greatest pride
Who belonged to the Triple Entente?
Britain, France, and Russia
How did the Triple entente form?
Wilheim had let his treaty lapse with Russia in 1890 and Russia responded by forming a defense military alliance with France. Then, Germany had started a tremendous shipbuilding program to make its navy equal to Britain's. Britain had responded by forming an alliance or an entente with France
Why was the alliance between France and Russia Germany's greatest fear?
Because Germany would be forced to fight a two front war (A war on both the eastern and western borders)
Who belonged to the Central powers?
The Triple alliance changed it's name to the Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
Who belonged to the Allies?
The Triple Entente changed it's name to the Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Serbia, Italians (joined later with the reason that Germany had unjustly started the war)
How did nationalism contribute to the start of WWI?
It had created intense competition between the countries because each wanted to top the next. -Materials and markets -Territory -Ethnic groups demanding for independence
How did Imperialism contribute to the start of WWI?
-Some countries wanted revenge from territorial disputes (loss of territory) -Competing for colonies in Africa and Asia
What was the Balkan region?
A region in Southeast Europe (Also known as the powder keg) -Austria Hungary and Russia tried to dominate this region
Why was the Balkan region so unstable?
Because it was home to a lot of ethnic groups (such as the Serbs, Bulgarians, and Romanians) These groups were struggling to free themselves from the Ottoman Turks and some had successfully broken away.
What is an example of nationalism within the Balkan region?
Serbia had a large Slavic population and hoped to absorb all the Slavs of the Balkan population. But, Austria Hungary opposed to this because they feared that it's efforts to create a Slavic state would stir rebellion amongst its Slavic population
What happened during the Assassination?
Archduke Franz Ferdinand had stepped to the throne and was shot when he and his wife rode through the roads of Sarajevo.
What did the Assassination result?
Because the assassin was Serbian, Austria decided to use this murder as an excuse to punish Serbia. Austria presented an ultimatum containing numerous demands and Serbia agreed to most of the demands. Austria's leaders had already settled on war, so they rejected Serbia's offers.
What resulted after Austria Hungary declared war?
-Russia was one of Serbia's allies (and had a large Slavic population), so they mobilized their troops toward the Austrian border. -Russia expected Germany to join Austria Hungary's side, so they also mobilized on Germany's border. -In result, Germany had declared war on Russia -Germany declared war on France -Great Britain declared war on Germany
What is a Immediate cause of the war?
The act that started the war -The assassination
What is a fundamental cause of the war?
The real cause of the war that is underneath the act (MANIA)
What is a total war? Was WWI a total war?
Total war: A war which countries devoted all their resources to the war effort -Yes WWI was
What was the Western front?
A region in Northern France, where the war was a long and bloody stalemate
What was the Eastern front?
An area that was a stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border
What was Trench warfare?
Was composed of miles long of parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire. There was mud everywhere and the dead/injured people fell on top of soldiers inside the trenches. There were swarms of rats and fresh food was non existent
What was the Schlieffen plan?
The German battle strategy that Germany had developed, which called for attacking and defeating France in the West, then rushing to the East to fight Russia
What was the First battle of the Marne and why was it so important?
The most important event of the war because the Allies regouped and attacked the Germans northeast of Paris, in the valley of the Marne river. German generals gave the order to retreat. This had left the Schlieffen Plan in ruins.
Why was Russia unable to fight the war like its allies in the West?
Because Russia wasn't industrialized. The army was always short of food, guns, ammunition, clothes, etc. The allies' shipments were limited because the Germans were in control of the Baltic sea and had its submarine campaign in the North Sea.
What was one big advantage that the Russians had?
The large population, therefore, the big amount of soldiers
Why did the Americans not want to enter the war at first?
In 1914, the Americans were idealistic and felt they should remain neutral; to show the rest of the world they wanted peace.
When did the Americans enter the war?
How did the Americans not remain neutral?
Lent money and sold their products to the Allies (France, England, etc)
What did the international law say?
When you are bombing a boat, you have to warn the boat because then they're able to get off the boat.
What was unrestricted submarine warfare?
Germany starts bombing merchant ships with out warning
What happened with the cruise ship, the Lusitania?
In 1915, the Lusitania sunk because of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare. Many of the people died on the English ship and the bottom of the boat contained weapons. After this, Germany had promised to never use unrestricted warfare.
Why did the Americans sympathize with the British and French?
Because Americans come from England and speak English. The Americans who didn't like England sided with the French because they helped us fight against the British in the American Revolution.
What was the Zimmerman note?
(1917) The US went to war with Mexico and took all land. Germany said if the US enters the war, Mexico should enter the war and be on Germany's side. Therefore, they would get all their land back. -Britain intercepted the note and published it
What was the real cause for US entry to WWI?
Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare when Germany promised the US they wouldn't anymore
What did the governments have to do to their supplies?
Rationing their goods because they were needed by everyday people and in the war.
What was propaganda?
One sided information designed to persuade, keep up morale, and support of the war. The government censored news about the war because they thought honest reporting of the war would turn people against it.
What happened to the American women's power in WWI?
Women's power increased in the role of society because they had to replace the men at home
Why did the Russia leave the war?
-(1918) Because of the civil unrest from war related shortages of food and fuel. Czar Nicolas was forced to step down. In his place, a provisional government was established and they still pledged to continue fighting. The war weary Russian army refused to fight any longer. -Germany and Russia had signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk
What happened to make Germany so weak and leave the war?
-The German army was so weak because of the exhausted men and supplies. The allies had launched a counter attack in the Second battle of Marne with fresh American troops, where most of the German army was located. -The public turned on the Kaiser and the Kaiser swept down. Germany declared itself a republic
Why was the United States so betrayed by the French and British?
The United States thought they were fighting a war for a good cause, but found out that France and Britain wanted Germany and Austria Hungary's colonies.
Who was the Big four?
1. Woodrow Wilson of the United States 2. George Clemenceau of France 3. David Lloyd George of Great Britain 4. Vittorio Orlando of Italy
What were the fourteen points?
A series of peace proposals 1-4: included the end of secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced national armies and navies 5: The adjustment of colonial claims with fairness towards colonial peoples. 14: League of nations
What was Self determination?
Allowing people to decide for themselves under what government in which they wished to live
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
The treaty that ended WWI between Germany and the Allied powers, signed in 1919 -Included the league of nations -Included a "war guilt" clause, which placed sole responsibility for the war on Germany's soldiers. Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies.
Did the US accept the Treaty of Versailles? Why or why not?
No the congress rejected signing the treaty of Versailles, because they didn't want anything to do with the foreign powers and didn't trust the Europeans.
Why were the Central powers bitter?
The treaties that the Central Powers had to sign resulted in huge losses of land and formed independent nations from the Austrian Hungarian empire. The Ottoman empire was only left with Turkey.
What was the Ottoman empire like in the time of WWI?
Like the Austrian Hungarian empire because it was very diverse and there were lots of ethnic groups. -A lot of conflict, tension, and civil war
Why did people want Turkey or the area of the Ottoman empire?
Because half of Turkey is in Europe and half of turkey is in Asia. (Strategic location)
What did Britain do to fight against the Ottoman Turks?
They knew that other nationalities hated the Turks within the empire, so wanted to convince them to fight. Said to the Arabs that if the British win the war, the Arabs could develop their own countries and become independent
How were the Arabs betrayed?
Hussein Ibn Ali was promised by England (Lawrence) that the Arabs would get their independence, but never happened.
What idea of the League of nations was thought to control the countries of the former Ottoman empire?
Mandate: England and France will go and help the countries on their feet, and once this happens, they will leave. (They did not leave)
What was the Sykes Picot Agreement?
It split the Ottoman empire at the end of the war. (Like the African Berlin conference)
What is a genocide?
Who did Turkey side with during WWI?
What was the aim of the Young Turks who developed in 1915?
The Young Turks had a plan to exterminate the Armenian population of Ottoman Turkey