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Psy 211 Exam 4
Terms in this set (38)
ex: dog, freedom, space travel, walking
-contains links to other concepts
ex: dog- fleas, fur, teeth, loyal
examples also called instances
group of related things
formed by the instances of a concept
Categories: Classical (Definitional) View
A category is defined by a set of features that are "singly necessary and jointly sufficient" to constitute category membership
ex: Bachelor: Unmarried, adult, male, human
Categories: The Instance (Exemplar) Theory
Rather than abstracting and storing a single prototype, it is possible that people simply retain
information about all of the individual exemplars
-Examples are actual category members (not abstract averages)
A category is defined by a small number of particularly good examples, which are called prototypes of the category
The category of "birds" may be defined by prototypes of robins, bluebirds, and sparrows
The Rule-Based (Theory-Based) Approach
When we have a rule (e.g. birds do not have fur), the rule may override the instances and prototypes (e.g. a bat can not be a bird)
Which of the 4 theories of categorization do we actually use?
Prototype and Instance Theory
What are different scenarios in which one method might work better or be more likely to be uses than another?
Prototype theory is quicker and easier to use for common categorization, where as instance theory allows us to categorize less common items (both theories still don't explain all cases)
What was done in the experiment by Posner and Keele (1968)?
They created a series of 16 scattered dot exemplars and 4 prototypes. participants went through a learning phase and learned all 16 exemplars. then they went through a test phase
What were the results of the experiment?
(Posner and Keele)
The results of the test showed that the participants did the best on the learned exemplars(80%), the worst on the new exemplars(50%) and alright on the prototypes(68%)
What was done in the related Reed (1972) experiment?
had the same experimental set up however he created faces and they differed on eye spacing and he came up with similar results
What is family resemblance as it relates to categorization?
Things in a category resemble one another in a lot of ways but aren't completely the same.
How is it measured? (family resemblance)
How similar an object is to the standard
What is priming?
Perception without awareness
When does it occur?
Occurs when presentation of one stimulus facilitates the response to another stimulus that usually follows closely in time.
Ex. Priming stimulus: The word "green"
Participant is then asked to indicate whether a pair of colors were the same as quickly as possible.
What is the semantic network model?
That there are specific specification for a category and the more basic the sentence verification is the faster the response
Concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way concepts are organized in the mind
(criticism:can't explain typicality effects, cognitive economy, some sentence verification results are problematic for the model)
What is spreading activation?
When the activation of one category activates another category. Activating apple activates red, which activates fire truck.
How did the Shepard (1967) study examining memory for pictures and memory for words work?
He had 612 pictures shown to the subjects look for 6 seconds and then he tested them with a sample of 100. he paired a picture that they saw with another random one and they had to decide which one they saw. he did the same thing but with words
What were the results of the study?
Found that from immediately after to 2 hours later subjects were close to perfect (pictures) at 3 days subjects were around 80% accurate and for words they were at chance level (55%). the picture memory was still above chance level at 4 months
What leads to good formation of visual memories?
1. attention to detail
2. meaningfulness and relevance of details
3. distinctive alternatives
What was Paivio's dual-code hypothesis?
a picture of something can be coded in 2 ways: nonverbal (visual) code and verbal the word to describe a picture.
What predictions did it make?
(Paivio's dual-code hypothesis)
it predicted that for concrete words we have dual coding and for abstract words only verbal coding
What did the Jonides and colleagues (1985) study demonstrate about conceptual knowledge?
Humans have good distance estimation (estimated distance has a moderately positive correlation with actual distance)
What did mental scanning experiments find?
It took longer for participants to find stimuli located farther from the initial point of focus because they have to scan across the image of the object.
How did Kosslyn interpret the results of his research on imagery?
Visual imagery is spatial just like perception.
Imagery shares the same mechanisms as perception (that is, creates a depictive representation in the person's mind).
What is the pegword technique?
A method for remembering things in which the things to be remembered are associated with concrete words. Create a vivid image of your item-to-be-remembered together with the object represented by the word.
What are the similarities between imagery and perception?
They both require the use of mental system.
What are the differnces between imagery and perception?
Perception has metric, quantitative properties that images do not.
How are neuropsychological findings related to imagery versus perception explained?
Kreiman's discovery of imagery neurons demonstrated a possible physiological mechanism for imagery and because these neurons respond in the same to perceiving an object and to imagining it, thereby supporting the idea of a close relation between perception and imagery.
Ganis and coworkers brain imaging demonstrates overlapping activation in the brain between imagery and perception.
What were the results of the imagery study of patients with unilateral neglect using the Piazza del Duomo in Milan?
Those who obtained a site of brain damage in (for example: their right parietal lobe) led to unilateral neglect where they only directed attention to one side in a series of tasks.
What were the results of the Ganis and coworker's fMRI study that measured brain activation for perception and imagery of objects?
Response in frontal lobe - perception and imagery cause the same activation.
Responses farther back in the brain - activation is the same in this area too
Responses from back of the brain - more activation in this area for perception than imagery
Where has it been proposed that the mechanism for imagery is located in the brain?
Where has it been proposed that the mechanism for perception is located in the brain?
What are imagery neurons?
Neurons in the human brain which fire in the same way when a person sees a picture of an object and when a person creates a visual image of the object.
What do imagery neurons respond to?
Objects and visual representations of an object but not faces.
What is an epiphenomenon?
A phenomenon that accompanies a mechanism but is not actually part of the mechanism.
Ex. Lights that flash on a computer as it operates.
Know the Mental Rotation Coglab.
When doing a mental rotation experiment participants often report that they mentally rotate one of the objects until they can determine if the two objects are the same or not
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