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Terms in this set (64)
the process by which the chemical energy of 'food' molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Occurs in mitochondrion in eukaryotes.
Involving oxygen or occurring in its presence. Produces more ATP than others. Reactants = oxygen & glucose; Products = ATP. Three stages: 1) Glycolysis 2) Krebs Cycle 3) electron transfer phosphorylation
occuring in the absence of oxygen.
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
Sequence of reactions by which most living cells generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration. Takes place in the mitochondria. Consumes oxygen. Produces carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Converting ADP to energy-rich ATP.
Electron transfer phosphorylation
The flow of electrons through the mitochondrial electron transfer chains.
a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two species
the liquid found inside cells
an anaerobic pathway by which cells harvest energy from carbohydrates
uses Saccharomyces cells to sustain yeast cells' growth & reproduction
uses Lactobacillus bacteria to break down lactose
output of glycolysis
genetically identical copy of an organism
a structure that consists of DNA & associated proteins; carries part of all of a cells genetic information
the sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given species (unique to each species)
having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species, (2n). Example: human body cells have two sets of 23 chromosomes → chromosome # = 46.
sperm & egg, (n).
image of an individual's complement of chromosomes arranged by size, length, shape, & centromere location.
any chromosome other than a sex chromosome
member of a pair of chromosomes that differs between males & females. (Humans → X & Y... female: XX male: XY)
organic molecule that is the building block of DNA and RNA. 3 main parts → 1) nitrogenous base 2) pentose sugar 3) phosphate group
4 Nucleotides of DNA
adenine (A), thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G)... A=T & C=G
the order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA
Sugar phosphate backbone
structural component of DNA that consists of 5-carbon deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups
double stranded DNA molecule separate, and each strand is used as a template for the synthesis of a new strand.
energy-requiring process by which a cell duplicates its DNA before it divides.
motor proteins that unpackage an organism's genes by using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis.
permanent change in DNA sequence (when repair mechanisms fail).
technology that produces genetically identical individuals.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
reproductive cloning method in which the DNA from a body cell is transferred into an unfertilized egg.
An enzyme responsible that adds nucleotides to the end of a growing RNA strand (during transcription)
enzyme the seals any gaps that remain between bases of the "new" DNA, so a continuous strand forms.
process by which enzymes assemble an RNA using the nucleotide sequence of a gene as a template.
Process by which a polypeptide chain is assembled from amino acids in the order specified by an mRNA.
DNA sequence that encodes an RNA or protein product.
process by which the information in a gene guides assembly of an RNA or protein product.
the fourth base in RNA (U).
Usually occurs in single-stranded form with ribose as the sugar in the nucleotides.
Type of RNA that becomes part of ribosomes.
Type of RNA that delivers amino acids to a ribosome during translation.
Type of RNA that has a protein building message.
Particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins. Found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. Bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
the building blocks of proteins that consist of smaller, linked sub-units or amino acids.
in mRNA, a nucleotide triplet that codes for an amino acid or stop signal during translation.
set of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA; base-pairs with mRNA codon
where a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
short single strand of RNA or DNA that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
a single base pair changes.
one or more nucleotides are lost.
one or more nucleotides become inserted into DNA.
Sickle cell anemia
cell sickles under stress, caused by base-pair substitution in the beta globin gene ( → results in circulatory problems & organ damage).
caused by deletion or insertion in the beta globin gene ( → results in anemia).
a family of basic proteins that associate with DNA in the nucleus and help condense it into chromatin.
shapes the physical structure of the genome (by tightly wrapping inactive genes, thus making them unreadable) & (by relaxing active genes, thus making them accessible)
the process by which cells become specialized.
a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule
presence = suppression of genes; absence = expression of genes
nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number → tissue repair (skin cells) & asexual reproduction.
nuclear division that halves the chromosome number → central to sexual reproduction (egg & sperm cells).
a period where cells are in between episodes of mitosis.
the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
chromosomes with the same length, shape, and genes. One member of the pair inherited from female parent, the other from male parent.
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