[APUSH] Chapter 17 and 19 Terms

A big thank you to whitneylavalle, but I spotted a few things I wanted to fix and revise in the original, so I made a copy. She did 99% of the work for this set.
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Terms in this set (...)

Trunk Line
Major railroad routes between large cities that reduced the inefficiencies of different gauges of tracks. Smaller branch lines connected the trunk lines with outlying towns.
Promontory Point
Area in Utah where the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad Companies' railroads met in 1869.
Watering Stock
Jay Gould's strategy of inflating the value of a corporation's assets and profits before selling its stock to the public; made him millions.
Railroad rebates
Discounts that railroads offered to favored shippers (ex: Rockefeller) while charging high freight rates to small customers. Farmers criticized the policy as discriminatory.
Interlocking directorates
A group of directors who ran competing railroad companies, a process which created regional railroad monopolies; helped powerful men like J.P. Morgan dominate boards of competing railroad corporations
Bessemer process
A technique created by Henry Bessemer in the 1850's in which air is blasted through molten iron to make steel much more cheaply
Sherman Antitrust Act
Act championed by reformers which prohibited any "contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce." (aka, monopolies)
United States v. E.C. Knight Co.
Supreme Court ruling in 1895 that the Sherman Antitrust Act could be applied only to commerce, not manufacturing
Social Darwinism
Theory influenced by Charles Darwin's biological natural selection theory and first proposed by Herbert Spencer; said that the wealthy were atop the pyramid because of survival of the fittest and the poor should not be helped, but rather to die as a form of natural selection.
Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie's belief the wealthy had a God-given responsibility to carry out projects of civic philanthropy for the benefit of society. Carnegie distributed over 350 million to public institutions such as libraries and schools.
Horatio Alger myth
the idea that a man of modest means could become rich and successful through hard work when in reality most of the wealthy men were white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestants who came from upper or middle class families with fathers in business or banking
Yellow-dog contracts
Tactic of employers trying to defeat unions; told workers that as a condition for employment, that they must sign an agreement promising to not join a union
Court injunction
Court order employers could obtain to oppose strikes
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Occurred when railroad companies cut wages to reduce costs; protests on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached 11 states and shut down 2/3s of national rail trackage. As other industries' workers joined it became a national issue. Ended when President Hayes used federal troops and 100 people were killed. Resulted either in improved wages and conditions and increased attacks on worker's organizations.
National Labor Union
First attempt to organize all workers regardless of skill or area of work in 1866; championed higher wages and the 8 hour day. Maintained broad social program encouraging equal rights for women and blacks, monetary reform, and worker cooperatives. Lost support after unsuccessful strike of 1877.
Knights of Labor
Secret society led by Terence Powderly which advocated worker cooperatives "to make each man his own employer," abolish child labor trusts/monopolies.
American Federation of Labor
As the nation's largest union (led by Samuel Gompers), it aimed for better wages and working conditions instead of a broad social program; directed local unions of skilled workers to walk out until given a new contract through collective bargaining
Homestead strike
Response to actions of Henry Clay Frick, manager of Carnegie's Homestead Steel plant near Pittsburgh, who cut wages by nearly 20% to avoid a strike in 1892; then Frick used a lockout, private guards and strikebreakers to defeat the walkout after 5 months
Pullman Strike
Strike of workers living in George Pullman's model company town after he announced a general wages and fired the leaders the worker's delegation that came to bargain with him. The workers asked Eugene Debs of the American Railroad Union not to handle trains with Pullman cars. Eventually a federal court forced abandonment of the boycott and strike.
In re Debs
the Supreme Court approved the use of court injunctions against strikes (1895)
Cornelius Vanderbilt
railroad mogul (nicknamed "Commodore") who merged local railroads into the New York Central Railroad in 1867 using the millions he earned off a pre-existing steamboat business
Jay Gould
Speculator who exploited the railroad industry for quick profit; made millions by watering stock
J.P. Morgan
Used the financial panic of 1893 to take control of bankrupt railroads and merge them. He dominated boards of competing railroad corporations through interlocking directories and subsequent regional railroad monopolies. Assumed Carnegie's business to create United States Steel corporation, the first billion dollar company.

Lent 65 million in gold to President Cleveland to support the gold standard. This convinced many Americans the government was a tool of eastern bankers
Andrew Carnegie
Famous rags to riches story; started manufacturing steel in Pittsburgh and beat competition by salesmanship, technology, and vertical integration. Sold his company to J.P. Morgan to pursue philanthropy (Gospel of Wealth).
John Rockefeller
Owner of Standard Oil Trust who employed business tactics such as extorting rebates from railroads, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and dropping prices to force out competition. He created the first of many trusts, and vertical integration allowed him to provide low kerosene prices.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone, patented in 1876
Thomas Edison
Created a machine for recording votes, then used profits to establish a lab in Menlo park where he pioneered the idea of a team in inventions rather than individuals. The lab created the phonograph, incandescent lamp, the dynamo for generating electric power, the mimeograph machine, and the motion picture camera.
George Westinghouse
Developed air brake for railroads and a transformers for producing high-voltage alternating current (AC) which lit cities, operated electric streetcars/subways and electrically powered machines and appliances
Terrence Powderly
Led the Knights of Labor, advocated worker cooperatives, abolition and child labor, and abolition of trusts and monopolies. Favored settling labor disputes by arbitration but loose organization made strike control impossible
Samuel Gompers
Led the American Federation of Labor; went after basics of better wages and conditions and directed local unions of skilled workers to walk out unttil employer agreed to negotiate a new contract through collective bargaining
Eugene Debs
Leader of American Railroad Union who supported the Pullman strike by ordering railroad workers not to handle trains with Pullman cars but with mail cars; was jailed, ending the strike. Following imprisonment he concluded only radical solutions would cure labor problems; turned to socialism and helped found American Socialist Party in 1900.
Patronage
A system in which benefits, including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support
Stalwarts
Supporters of Republican Senator Roscoe Conkling who received lucrative jobs in the New York Customs House. They nominated Chester A. Arthur
Halfbreeds
Rival of Stalwarts for patronage, led by James G Blaine
Nominated James A. Garfield
Mugwumps
Republicans who did not engage in the patronage system
Pendleton Act
1881; set up Civil Service Commission and created a system by which applicants for classified federal jobs would be selected off scores on competitive exam; also prohibited civil servants from making political contributions
Greenback Party
"Soft-money" third party that polled over a million votes and elected fourteen congressmen in 1878 by advocating inflation
Bland-Allison Act
Allowed only limited coinage of between $2 and $4 million in silver each month at the standard silver-to-gold ratio of 16 to 1; passed over Hayes' veto in 1878
Billion-dollar Congress
Republican control of presidency and both houses of Congress
- passed McKinley Tariff of 1890
- increased pensions to Civil War veterans/widows/children
- Sherman Anitrust Act
- Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 (slightly increased coinage of silver)
- a bill to protect the voting rights of African Americans which was passed by the House but defeated in the Senate
McKinley Tariff
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history. Led to Panic of 1893 which resulted in the defeat of the democrats in 1894 (victory of Grover Cleveland over Harrison)
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Increased the coinage of silver but in amount too small to satisfy farmers and miners; repealed by Cleveland following the fall of the gold reserve
Populists (People's Party)
Built on the foundation of the Alliance movement. Supported James Weaver for President.
Omaha Platform
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire policy and demanding economic and political reform:

Economic Agenda:
- unlimited coinage of silver
- increase of money circulation
- higher income tax rates
- public ownership of railroads
- telegraphs and telephone systems owned and operated by the US government
- the 8 hour work day
- restricted immigration
- attempts to unify poor blacks and whites

Political Agenda:
- direct election US senators
- enacting of state laws by voters
Coxey's Army
1894; march to Washington by thousands of unemployed led by Populist Jacob A. Coxey of Ohio
Demanded federal government spent $500 million on public works programs to create jobs; leaders arrested and the army went home
"Free Silver"
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan whose speech in the national convention in Chicago won him the Democratic nominee for president
"Cross of gold" speech
William Jennings Bryan's speech on "Free Silver" that won him the democratic nomination for president overnight
Mark Twain
Coined the term Gilded Age when he wrote a book titled "Gilded Age" which referred to the superficial glitter of new wealth of this era.
Roscoe Conkling
Republican Senator who became a powerful leader of his party by dictating who in Republican ranks would be appointed to lucrative jobs in the New York Customs House: he and his supporters were known as Stalwarts; almost as ugly a title as his own name
James Blaine
Led the Halfbreeds, the rival of the Stalwarts for Republican patronage
Rutherford Hayes
Winner of election of 1876, ended Reconstruction by withdrawing the last federal troops from the South, attempted to reestablish honest government after corrupt Grant administration, he and wife "Lemonade Lucy" cut off liquor flow in white house, vetoed efforts to restrict Chinese immigrant, made Republican politicians serve only one term
James Garfield
"Halfbreed" Republican winner of election of 1800, chose Halfbreeds for most offices angering Stalwarts; enraged office seeker shot him and his vice president Chester A. Arthur (a Stalwart) became President
Chester Arthur
Garlfield's vice president, became president after his assassination, surprisingly good president when he distanced himself from Stalwarts, supported a bill reforming civil service, approved the development of a modern American navy, and questioned a high protective tariff but was denied renomination by the Republican party in 1884
Grover Cleveland
Democratic president; believed in frugal and limited government like Jefferson. He:
- implemented new civil service system
- vetoed 100's of pensions for faux civil war veterans
- Interstate Commerce Act
- Dawes Acts
- retrieved 81 million acres of government land from cattle ranchers and the railroads

Reelected in 1892 due to unpopularity of high-tax McKinley Tariff. He is the only president to leave office and return.
James Weaver
Populist presidential nominee for election 1892; lost badly in the South due to racist based fears of unity of black and white poor to the conservative Southern Democrats, and the North due to the large number of urban workers
William McKinley
Republican winner of Election of 1896; supported a high protective tariff and was a friend of labor
His party promised a prosperous nation and a higher tariff to protect industry and upheld the gold standard against the unlimited coinage of silver
Well liked and well traveled, as leader during was with Spain, helped make the United States a world power
Mark Hanna
Financial power behind McKinley's nomination and campaign; raised millions for Republican ticket from business leaders who feared "silver lunacy" would lead to runaway inflation, used the money to sell McKinley through media
William Jennings Bryan
Made the "Cross of gold" speech at the national convention in Chicago which earned him the Democratic nomination for president