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Sensory input

refers to all the sensory stimuli from the physical world that we receive through our five senses-sight,sound,touch,taste,and smell.

Sensory memory

Is a temporary storage center that receives and holds sensory input for on or two seconds before beginning to encode the informations for further processing.


Is the process of attaching codes to stimuli so your long-term memory can accept, understand, use , and store the sensory information.

Linguistic coding

You hear the new information . Acoustical or auditory coding .

Semantic coding

You instantly think about a time you saw or went inside a cave and saw a stalagmite .

Visual coding

Is when you repeat the word to yourself and draw a picture and practice picturing it in your mind .

Kinesthetic coding

With the finger your trace a shape the shape in the air . To help you memorize .

Selective attention

Is the process of focusing on or attending to specific sensory input that is important to process further .

Working memory

Refers to all cognitive processes or activities that occur in our conscious mind.

Short-Term Memory

Is a temporary storage center in working memory that receives and briefly holds sensory memory for further processing.

The Magic 7 + 2 Theory

States that immediate memory span is 7 items plus 2.

Central Executive

Is the part of working memory that manages and coordinates the cognitive functions and the flow of information throughout the processing system .

Long-term memory

Is a permanent storage center that holds chunks of information received from working memory .


Are sets of memories (clusters of related information) that form large concepts or frameworks in which other related ideas, facts, and details can be attached.

Memory Search

Involves linking together a series of facts, concepts, or previously learned associations in order to locate information stored in your long-term memory.

Retrieval cues

Are words, phrases, pictures, graphics, or memory tricks associated with units of information sent to long term memory .

cognitive learning styles

refers to the general way people prefer to have information presented in order to problem-solve,process,learn,and remember new information.

learning modalities

Three commonly recognized cognitive learning styles are visual , auditory, and kinesthetic.

learning style preference

The tendency to use a visual, auditory, or kinesthetic modality.

Visual Learners

Prefer to process and learn information in visual forms such as pictures,charts, or printed information.

Auditory learners

Prefer to process and learn by hearing and discussing information.

Kinesthetic learners

Prefer to process and learn information through large and small muscle movements and hands on experiences .

Multisensory strategies

Are learning strategies that combine two or more modalities .


Includes speaking or reading out loud to activate your auditory channel and build auditory memory.


Involves explaining information out loud, in complete sentences, and in your own words without looking at printed information .

Linear learner

Is a person who initially processes information through the left hemisphere of the brain , which deals with logic, structured and verbal information .

Brain Dominance Theory

Is a cognitive model that identifies specific functions of the left hemisphere and the righ hypersphere of the brain

Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Is a cognitive theory that proposes that individuals have at least eight different kinds of intelligences .

an intelligence

Is the potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture.


Are core abilities that are part of a larger individual intelligence .

linguistic intelligence

Is the ability to use verbal and written language effectively.

Logical-mathematical intelligence

Is the ability to use logic, problem solving, analysis, and mathematical calculations effectively.

Musical intelligence

Is the ability to show an acute sensitivity and appreciation of musical patterns and elements .

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

Is the ability to use precise body rhythms and movements, motor coordination skills, and other skills such as timing, balance, and flexibility.

Spatial intelligence

Is the ability to use keen perceptions of patterns, shapes, textures, and visual skills .

Interpersonal intelligence

Is the ability to use effective communication, social, leadership, and cooperative teamwork skills.

Intrapersonal intelligence

Is the ability to use skills related to personal growth, self understanding, and self-motivation and to use intuition and spirituality .

naturalist intelligence

Is the ability to show a sensitivity to the physical world, which includes the balance of plants, animals, and environment.

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