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38 terms

Chapter 1 and 2 Terminology

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Sensory input
refers to all the sensory stimuli from the physical world that we receive through our five senses-sight,sound,touch,taste,and smell.
Sensory memory
Is a temporary storage center that receives and holds sensory input for on or two seconds before beginning to encode the informations for further processing.
Encoding
Is the process of attaching codes to stimuli so your long-term memory can accept, understand, use , and store the sensory information.
Linguistic coding
You hear the new information . Acoustical or auditory coding .
Semantic coding
You instantly think about a time you saw or went inside a cave and saw a stalagmite .
Visual coding
Is when you repeat the word to yourself and draw a picture and practice picturing it in your mind .
Kinesthetic coding
With the finger your trace a shape the shape in the air . To help you memorize .
Selective attention
Is the process of focusing on or attending to specific sensory input that is important to process further .
Working memory
Refers to all cognitive processes or activities that occur in our conscious mind.
Short-Term Memory
Is a temporary storage center in working memory that receives and briefly holds sensory memory for further processing.
The Magic 7 + 2 Theory
States that immediate memory span is 7 items plus 2.
Central Executive
Is the part of working memory that manages and coordinates the cognitive functions and the flow of information throughout the processing system .
Long-term memory
Is a permanent storage center that holds chunks of information received from working memory .
Schemas
Are sets of memories (clusters of related information) that form large concepts or frameworks in which other related ideas, facts, and details can be attached.
Memory Search
Involves linking together a series of facts, concepts, or previously learned associations in order to locate information stored in your long-term memory.
Retrieval cues
Are words, phrases, pictures, graphics, or memory tricks associated with units of information sent to long term memory .
cognitive learning styles
refers to the general way people prefer to have information presented in order to problem-solve,process,learn,and remember new information.
learning modalities
Three commonly recognized cognitive learning styles are visual , auditory, and kinesthetic.
learning style preference
The tendency to use a visual, auditory, or kinesthetic modality.
Visual Learners
Prefer to process and learn information in visual forms such as pictures,charts, or printed information.
Auditory learners
Prefer to process and learn by hearing and discussing information.
Kinesthetic learners
Prefer to process and learn information through large and small muscle movements and hands on experiences .
Multisensory strategies
Are learning strategies that combine two or more modalities .
Verbalizing
Includes speaking or reading out loud to activate your auditory channel and build auditory memory.
Reciting
Involves explaining information out loud, in complete sentences, and in your own words without looking at printed information .
Linear learner
Is a person who initially processes information through the left hemisphere of the brain , which deals with logic, structured and verbal information .
Brain Dominance Theory
Is a cognitive model that identifies specific functions of the left hemisphere and the righ hypersphere of the brain
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Is a cognitive theory that proposes that individuals have at least eight different kinds of intelligences .
an intelligence
Is the potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture.
subintelligences
Are core abilities that are part of a larger individual intelligence .
linguistic intelligence
Is the ability to use verbal and written language effectively.
Logical-mathematical intelligence
Is the ability to use logic, problem solving, analysis, and mathematical calculations effectively.
Musical intelligence
Is the ability to show an acute sensitivity and appreciation of musical patterns and elements .
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
Is the ability to use precise body rhythms and movements, motor coordination skills, and other skills such as timing, balance, and flexibility.
Spatial intelligence
Is the ability to use keen perceptions of patterns, shapes, textures, and visual skills .
Interpersonal intelligence
Is the ability to use effective communication, social, leadership, and cooperative teamwork skills.
Intrapersonal intelligence
Is the ability to use skills related to personal growth, self understanding, and self-motivation and to use intuition and spirituality .
naturalist intelligence
Is the ability to show a sensitivity to the physical world, which includes the balance of plants, animals, and environment.