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Terms in this set (71)

French, determined to secure American territory against encroaching British/American traders, built a chain of forts along Pennsylvania's Allegheny River.

British ministry ordered colonial governors to repel the French advance by force. Britain wanted colonial territory, larger global empire, wealth, and, as a result, POWER.

"First" World war (spanned three continents, including the Caribbean)
Three prior wars between Britain, France, and Spain from 1688-1748 (King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War)

England and France traded for furs with Native Americans in Ohio County and, by the 1750s, English colonists wanted wilderness for farmland. As a result, each side tried to keep the other out of THE OHIO COUNTY.

North America is so important that it's causing fights to break out in Europe.

- Britain, Prussia, Portugal, Native Americans
- France, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Native Americans

1750: French soldiers captured English trading posts and built Fort Dusquesne

In 1753, Washington sent to demand French troops leave. They don't leave.

May 28, 1754: Massacre at Jumonville
- GW Native American ally Tanacharison (Half King) assassinates French leader Jumonville, violating codes of war

July 4, 1754: Battle of Fort Necessity
French surround Washington. French win. Washington signs surrender that admits to Jumonville's assassination AND THE WAR OFFICIALLY STARTS

1754: Battle of Fort Dusquense

1755: Battle at Lake George
- Neither side wins

1756-1757: Alliance of Shawnee & Delaware Indians vs. British. Cause serious British defeats.

1756: William Pitt took over as chief minister in Britain, and diverted all military resources to America. Guaranteed payment to the colonies in order to unite them. His strategies worked.

1758-1760: British begin to win.
- Indian allies abandon French

In 1758 (with colonial forces assisting) Louisbourg was seized. In 1759, Quebec was seized.

1760: Montreal was also surrendered to the British, marking the end of the war in America.

(European style of British troops: good weather, open field, straight rows of soldiers, rules of engagement FAIL in American wilderness.
- Economics (need to be able to trade) (Britain is confiscating trade goods)
- British wrongdoings (Britain is ignoring our status as an independent nation and doesn't respect our neutral trading rights)
- Native American Alliances -> killing Americans (and American Soldiers) (With Native Americans readily scalping Americans in return for British arms being one artists depiction of it all)
- Impressment (and other naval theft)
- Desire to drive Britain out of America
- Need to protect citizens harassed by Britain
- Need to almost "prove" itself as an independent nation
- British still have forts in Canada for easy attack
- Jay's treaty and embargo act (diplomatic negotiations) have failed

(1) Impressment
(2) Trade neutrality (Britain not respecting US)
(3) Naval theft (explaining another major injustice of British navy against US)
(4) Canada (and how Britain still has forts there)
(5) Native Americans (and how they're killing Americans)
(6) Diplomatic Failure (tried to peacefully resolve this (Jay's Treaty, Embargo act) and failed)

"War Hawks"
- Included politicians in Congress that wanted to declare war on Britain as a war of having America stand up for itself
- Felix Grundy being an example
- Painted picture of America being walked all over with Britain attempting "to subject our maritime rights to the arbitrary and capricious rule of her will"
- "Sir, I prefer war to submission"

James Madison on US Neutrality
- Britain is in a "state of war against the United States" while were are in a "state of peace" with them
- Thus we need to fight back
- Britain has all but declared war on us, but we refuse to fight back

The U.S. realizing total neutrality doesn't work, but only fighting Britain to try to return to neutrality.

The Stage:
- Britain had 6,000 troops in Canada (before Napoleon was defeated) and 125 gun ships at the ready
- America had 12,000 troops but 400,000 state militiamen could be called into action BUT they only had 6 gun ships AND had to fight on two fronts (American frontier and at sea)

- 2.5 years of near-disasters and mistakes for the US
- Eventually entire US fleet confined to port by 80 British ships
- US militarily under-equipped and inexperienced
- US forces suffered defeats in attempts to invade Canada
- Napoleon's defeat in 1814 meant Britain could concentrate solely on the US
- Sentiments in Britain called for revocation of the Peace Treaty of 1783
- Most fighting on US soil (US just defending itself)

A turn for the better:
- US authorized 500 privateers to harass British shipping (they were met with great success, capturing over 1,300 British vessels)
The Stage:
- Post War of 1812
- Huge burst in nationalism
- Need for TERRITORY
- South America fighting for its independence (could become commercial interest to the U.S.)
- John Quincy Adams sees Latin American revolutions and says American should support fighting for independence but we can't FIGHT because then we're getting into wars
- Need to balance our interests AND support recognizing independent South American colonies, without getting militarily invested

The Solution:
- Monroe decided to anact his Doctrine
- Europe: stay away from us, we'll stay away from you
- Warning: stop trying to keep colonies in this hemisphere
- In exchange, we won't get involved in European wars again

The Impact:
- 1st foreign policy we have FOR OURSELVES that isn't just reaction to Europe
- Stay out of our backyard, we stay out of yours
- Demand for Europe to stay out of our hemisphere is either a defence of American security and ideals OR a way of giving America the green light to expand into the hemisphere as they saw fit (leading into manifest destiny)
- Steadily after the doctrine, the US acquired territory through conflict, purchases, and annexation


"We're protecting this side of the Atlantic. It's not in our best interests, then, to get involved in any international affairs in Europe"
- Justification for non-neutrality ->
- if Europe attempts to "extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere, as dangerous to our peace and safety"
- "it's only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we become resentful and make preparation for our defense"
Armistice: ceasefire where both sides agree to stop the fight and talk peace
- President Wilson (US)
- Prime Minister Lloyd George (Britain)
- Prime Minister Clemenceau (France)

Wilson had idea for "Peace Without Victory" - Peace without Blame/Peace without penalty for Germany

President Wilson asked for "peace without victory"
- Germans accepted the 14 points BUT Britain and France wanted payback from Germany after losing so many men in war

Written as Peace of Paris Conference
- Came after Wilson's 14 points (and rejected "peace without victory")
- Really the Big Three could do whatever they wanted, as Germany was all but crushed. They decided to get revenge.

(1) Recognizing independence
- Of Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia (bitter pill to swallow b/c countries get old German territory)
- Gives up all rights and titles over oversea possessions
- Stripped of colonies and territories -> ends the empire
(2) Armed forces restricted
- Only 100,000 in army to prevent them from starting war again
- 7 divisions of infantry and 3 divisions of cavalry
- Army solely for maintenance of order within German territory
- Armed forces of Germany can't include a navy or air force (prevent u-boat warfare)
(3) War guilt clause
- Demanded HUGE reparations to compensate for losses in war
- ALL blame for allies losses and need for complete reparation

* Resulted in German resentment b/c no other central power was blamed or made to pay.
* Recognizes independence of these countries (creates modern map of Europe)
* Germany falls into debt which leads to hyperinflation
- Italy got nothing -> Italy changes sides in WWII
* German resentment and economic crash created a political landscape favorable to Hitler. Tensions that surmount eventually lead to WWII
Policy where one country will give another country something they want in hopes it will appease them -> stop them from asking for more. "Remember... One more Lollypop, and Then You All Go Home!"
- As tensions mounted, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of Britain tried to defuse the situation by appeasing the Germans (called for concessions to avoid a war)
- "got the impression [of Hitler] that here was a man who could be relied upon when he had given his word"
- Other countries followed suit, giving Hitler a lot of leeway in the hopes that he would just stop

- But, it seemed Hitler would not compromise in the end, and the Munich pact (giving Hitler the Sudetenland) was a result -> more Appeasement
- And people thought the Munich pact was GOOD (a way to further avoid war) -> "peace for our time" "peace with honor"
- Winston Churchill saw the flaws "You were given the choice between war and dishonour. You chose dishonour and you will have war"
- Churchill defined appeaser as "one who feeds a crocodile--hoping that it will eat him last"


(1) Treaty of Versailles was too harsh on Germany -> so they get some leeway
(2) Economic Struggles During the Great Depression -> "butter before guns" so war wasn't an option
(3) Public Opinion and Pacifism -> No one wanted war, they'd already fought "the war to end all wars"
(4) Military Weakness -> Great Britain had already cut down on its military, couldn't afford to rebuild it now
(5) Lack of reliable allies -> Britain only had its own Empire for support (USA was too isolationist and Russia was Communist and untrustworthy)
(6) Concerns over the British Empire -> British Empire too huge to maintain AND fight a war
(7) Fear of Communism -> "Better Hitlerism than Communism", and fighting Hitler might spread Communism, while Hitler's lead in Germany could be good
- Japan (an Allied Power) had been ignored at the Peace of Paris Conference
- Becomes increasingly imperialist
- This triggers US to move Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Pearl Harbor Hawaii - a message to threaten Japan and to protect the Philippines
- Under Neutrality Act -> America cut off Steel and Oil Shipments to Japan (80% of Japanese oil from US)
- Japan only had 2 years worth of oil reserves
- Also cut off 90% of trade in raw materials needed by Japan for war

- Japan didn't believe it could win a drawn-out war with the US
- Wanted to cripple the Pacific Fleet in one hit so it could invade oil-rich Dutch East Indies and Philippines without opposition
- 360 Japanese planes hit at 7:45 Hawaii time
- Despite warnings, no one believed the Japanese were capable fo the attack

- 5 of 8 US battleships, 3 destroyer ships, 7 other naval ships sunk or destroyed
- 2,400 Americans killed, 1,200 wounded
- Japan only lost 30 planes, 5 small subs, and less than 100 men


By December, 1941, Japanese Army had a force of 2,400,000 trained ground troops and an air fleet of 7,500 planes. US had a force of 1,500,000 with only 500,000 being completely trained, and 1,157 planes with 347 war ships
- Much of America's further war production was committed through the Lend Lease Program
- Japan believed US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor was their only threat and set out to eliminate the fleet through a surprise air attack

- US received several warnings in advance, but the US War Department didn't believe Japan was on the verge of attacking the US (after all peace talks were underway)
- Even upon receiving a written message from Japan threatening war on the day of the attack, the US couldn't appreciate the full implications
- Poor communications between Washington and Hawaii helped Japan achieve the surprise attack
- Two early warnings came, but both were ignored. The second warning involved the sighting of planes about 50 miles away from an Army information center at Fort Shafter, but the lieutenant believed they were US planes returning from a spy mission

- First at 7:45 am attacking seven U.S. ships along "Battleship Row"
- Second wave finished the devastation
- In less than two hours the Japanese had ruined the U.S. Pacific Fleet's battleship force, ensuring the US would not interfere with further plans for conquest

- Martial law was established, as were strict curfews and blackouts
- Censorship of news and mail
- Japanese owned businesses shut down
- Japanese internment
- Poor conditions, with no plumbing or cooking facilities, and even though the camps closed in 1945, it wasn't until 1968 that the US Government began paying compensation to Japenese American citizens (which was only ever provided to approximately 60,000 of those who had survived to receive it)


"Battleship row"
- Bunch of ships in one area
- In a harbor without easy access to the ocean
- So close together that domino effect of explosions made the ships one giant target

"Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan"
- US declared war -> other Axis powers Germany and Italy declare war on the US -> US declares back
July 1945
- US government foreign policy has 1 focus = CONTAINMENT
- Contain the spread of communism and SPREAD democracy
- Deep Freeze: US and Soviet Union Foreign Policy Relations 1949-1991

- Aim to secure post WWII peace
- Potsdam conference
- Big three, splitting into two (USA and Britain for free gov't vs. Stalin of USSR for communism)
- Allies in war, but ideological differences = conflict
- Liberal democracy vs. communism

Lack of trust between liberal democracies and communists
- Truman gave order to use the bomb, but never told Stalin of its existence
- Stalin would later note the bomb destroyed balance between USSR and USA (USA too far ahead)
- Tensions would erupt in cold war


Starts with Post WWII recovery
- US leading superpower after WWII (no destruction on our soil aside from Pearl Harbor)
- Nations of Europe destroyed -> ruined by bombs, starvation, needing to be re-built
- Soviet Union (USSR) is SECOND biggest superpower to survive the war
- Now has additional countries in its "empire" called Soviet Satellites

- US and USSR have totally opposing views of what to do post WWII
- US thinks Germany should be healed and re-built, wants to spread democracy
- USSR feels Germany should be kept weak so it can never attack again (since it had attacked twice w/ WWI-II), wants to spread communism (political system where economy and society are all equal - no separate classes and government controls it all)


COLD because tense as war but never actual war between USSR and US
- Instead, it was deep-rooted hatred, political, military, technological rivalry
- Was a war of political ideologies, nuclear weapon threats, and proxy war

- President Truman and the Korean War (1950-1953)
- President Kennedy and Cuba - Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis (1960-1963)
- President Nixon and Vietnam War (1965-1973)
- President Nixon and Vietnam War, Visit to China (1972)
- President Carter and Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)
- President Reagan and Fall of Berlin Wall (1989)
- President G.H. Bush and the First Gulf War (1990-1991)
- President Obama and Russia over Syria intervention (2013)