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NASM: Chapter 9
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Terms in this set (46)
What's the cores objective?
To uniformly strengthen, stabilize, align, and move the trunk of the body. Especially the abdomen and muscles of the back
What should a properly designed core training program do?
Help the client gain neuromuscular control, stability, muscular endurance, strength and power of the core.
The structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC), including the lumbar spine, the pelvic girdle, abdomen, and the hip joint.
The core is divided into 3 systems:
Local Stabilization System, Global Stabilization System, Movement System
Where are the local stabilization muscles attached and what is their function?
They attach directly to the vertebrae and they provide support from vertebrae to vertebrae.
The primary muscles in the Local core stabilizers are?
transverse abdominis, internal obliques, multifidus, pelvic floor musculature, and diaphragm.
What are the primary muscles that make up the globalization stabilization system?
quadratus lumborum, psoas major, external obliques, portions of the internal oblique, rectus abdominis, gluteus medius and adductor complex.
The primary muscles in the movement system are?
latissimus dorsi, hip flexors, hamstring complex, quadriceps.
The movement system is primarily responsible for what?
Concentric force production and eccentric deceleration during dynamic activities. AKA the actual movement of the core.
The muscles of the local stabilizers are made of what type of muscle fiber?
Type 1: Slow twitch muscle fibers with a high density of muscle spindles.
Where do the globalization stabilization system muscles attach & what is their function?
From the pelvis to the spine and they transfer loads between the upper and lower extremity, provide stability between the pelvis and spine, and provide stabilization and eccentric control of the core during a functional movement.
True or False: If isolated the muscles of the local, global and movement systems are still as effective?
FALSE: In isolation, these muscles do not effectively achieve stabilization of the LPHC; rather it is through their synergistic interdependent functioning that they enhance stability and neuromuscular control.
In what order should the 3 systems be trained?
1. Local Stabilization System 2. Global Stabilization 3. Human Movement
Having a weak local stabilization system produces what postural distortion during exercise?
Lower back arch
What injury is probable to a weak local stabilization system?
Lower back pain
In what order should I train the core?
Local, global then movement. From the inside out
How do I perform the "drawing in" maneuver?
Pull in the region just below the navel toward the spine and maintain the cervical spine in a neutral position. Note: Make sure the kinetic chain is in alignment.
Why should my client maintain a neutral spine during core training?
Maintaining a neutral spine during core training helps to improve posture, muscle balance and stabilization.
What is causing my clients head to protrude forward during the drawing in maneuver?
The large neck muscles are being recruited which increases forces in the cervical spine and can lead to pelvic instability and muscle imbalances. Have the client keep their eyes looking forward.
What does the "Bracing" method focus on?
Bracing focuses on global trunk stability, not on segmental vertebral stability, meaning that the global muscles, given the proper endurance training, will work to stabilize the spine.
What are the characteristics of a comprehensive core training program?
It should be systematic, progressive, functional and emphasize: Force production, reduction and dynamic stabilization.
What planes of motion should my core training use?
Sagital, Frontal & Transverse
What ROM should my core training use?
Full, partial & end-range
What types of resistance could my core training use?
Cable, tubing, medicine ball, power ball, dumbbells & kettlebells
What body positions should I use during core training?
Supine, prone, side-lying, kneeling, half-kneeling, standing, staggered-stance, single leg, standing on unstable surfaces
What type of progression should I use for core training?
Easy to hard, simple to complex, known to unknown and stable to unstable
Should the core training be systematic?
Yes. Start with stabilization then strength and power
True or False: Core training does not need to be integrated.
False: Core training should also be done in a integrated fashion.
What proprioceptively challenging core exercise should I use?
Stability ball, BOSU, core board, half foam roll, airex pad and bodyblade
The core training program I design should regularly:
Manipulate plane of motion, ROM, form (such as on a stability ball), body position, control, speed of execution, feedback and other variable such as sets, reps, intensity, tempo and frequency.
True or False: Core exercise do not increase activation of the local and global stabilization system when compared to trunk exercises.
False: Core exercise performed in an unstable environment increase activation of the local and global stabilization system when compared to trunk exercises.
True or False: Weight belts are recommended when exercising?
False: Weight belts are not recommended as they may raise the heart rate and systolic blood pressure and give a false sense of security and misconception that they can lift heavier loads. Instead educate the proper exercise technique and the activation of the core which is the bodies natural belt.
True or False: When core training my client should not proceed in difficulty until stability in both the lumbopelvic and intervertebral is achieved.
True: The client should only progresses through the program once mastery of the exercises in the previous level has been achieved while demonstrating intervertebral stability and lumbopelvic stability. For example, a client has appropriate intervertebral stability when able to maintain the drawing-in position when performing various exercises. The client has appropriate lumbopelvic stability when able to perform functional movement patterns (squats, lunges, step-ups, single-leg movements, pressing, pushing, etc.) without excessive spinal motion.
It is critical that the core training program is designed to achieve the following functional outcome in this sequence:
1: Intervertebral stability 2: Lumbopelvic stability 3: Movement stability
What is Phase 1 of core stabilization training?
Exercises that involve little motion through the spine and pelvis. They are designed to improve neuromuscular efficiency and intervertebral stability.
Focus on _________ and then _________ during phase 1 of core training.
drawing in, bracing
Sample exercises of core stabilization exercises
Marching, Floor bridge, Floor prone cobra & Prone iso-ab (plank)
Whats the recommended length of time to stay in Phase 1 of core training?
What is phase 2, 3 & 4 of core strength?
Exercises that involve more dynamic eccentric and concentric movements of the spine throughout a full range of motion while clients perform the activation techniques learned in phase 1. Note: The specificity, speed and neural demands are also progressed in this level.
Whats the recommended length of time to stay in the strength phase of core training?
Traditionally 4 weeks
Sample exercises of Strength core exercises?
Ball crunch, Back extensions, Reverse crunch, Cable rotations
What is the purpose of power core training?
These exercise are designed to improve the rate of force production of the core musculature by preparing them to dynamically stabilize and generate force at applicable speeds.
Sample exercise in power core (phase 5) training?
Rotation chest pass, Ball medicine ball pullover throw, Front med ball oblique throw, soccer throw
______ is focused on in phase 1 of core training
______ is focused on in phase 2,3 & 4 of core training
______ is focused on in phase 5 of core training.
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