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Forensics Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
Father of Forensic Toxicology
Mathieu Orfila
Father of Anthropometry
Alphonse Bertillion
Father of Fingerprinting
Francis Galton
Father of Bloodstain Identification
Leone Lattes
Father of Ballistics
Calvin Goodard
Father of Document Examinations
Albert Osborn
Father of Microscopic Forensics
Walter McCrone
Father of the Crime Lab
Edmond Locard
The oldest forensic lab in the US
LAPD
The scientist who maintained that when a criminal came in contact with an object or person a cross transfer of evidence would occur
Edmond Locard -Contact Theory
How many public crime labs operate throughout the US?
350
Name the 4 basic services provided by "full-service crime labs"
Physical Science, Biology, Photography, Firearms
What are the basic functions of a Forensic sciencist
Expert testimony, analysis of physical evidence, training
Name the optional services provided by "full-service crime labs"
Toxicology, fingerprint analysis, voice analysis, CSI
Name 4 special forensic sciences services available to Law enforcement community
ontology, entomology, pathology, engineering, psychiatry
The examination of human skeletal remains and its relation to a criminal investigation is known as
Anthropology
The study of poisons and drugs and their effect on human and animal population
Toxicology
A systematic procedure of taking a series of body measurements is called
Antropometry
The current system of crime labs in the US is best described as
Centralized
The science that deals with the motions, behavior and efforts of projectiles most often firearms and bullets is called
Ballistics
In forensics the use of lie detector is done in the field of
Polygraphy
A serious crime such as a murder, punishable by more than one year of imprisonment up to execution is called
Felony
A ____ evaluates evidence based on knowledge, specialized training and experience
Expert Witness
A minor crime less than a felony, usually punished with a fine of confinement other than in prison
Misdemeanor
The examination of blood, hairs, fibers and vegetative materials is the function of which unit of crime lab?
Biology Unit
Which specialty of forensics deals with accident reconstruction, involvement of mechanical items and assists in determining responsible parties?
Engineering
The standard guideline for determination the judicial admissibility of scientific examination stemmed from which court ruling
Frye vs. US
What is the study of dental features, bite marks to identify a victim when the body is otherwise unidentifiable called?
Odontology
_____ are composed of large numbers of atoms arranged in repeating units
polymers
______ are polymers composed of thousands of amino acids linked in a highly organized arrangement and sequence
protein
A computerized database that allows an analyst to obtain information relative to an individual's DNA profile is
CODIS
in a gun barrel causes distinctive grooves, indentations and scratches upon fired bullets, which can be matched to the weapon that fired them.
rifling
When an object is broken, torn, or cut, two unique edges are formed which are called as
Fracture Line
A general rule the deceased body will lose heat at a rate of:
1-1.5 degrees per hour
The amount of _________ in the vitreous humor helps in estimating the time of death.
Potassium
What type of scientist studies skeletal remains?
Anthropologist
An example of a type of evidence that might be identified using a fracture mark is
glass, tape, paper
A forensic ___________ is a computerized archive of information relating to a specific type of physical evidence
Database
When evidence can be associated only with a group and never with a single source, that evidence is said to possess:
class characteristics
The likelihood of finding class physical evidence is ________ the likelihood of finding physical evidence with individual characteristics.
greater than
Post Mortem changes that cause a body to loose heat is called
Algor Mortis
_____________can be used to exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion if the standard reference sample (control) does not share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene.
Physical Evidence
_____characteristics are properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source.
individual
Evidence of tampering with the position of a body after death can be obtained by evaluating _____________& ____________.
Livor Mortis and Algor Mortis
__________characteristics are properties of evidence that can be attributed only with a group.
class
The post mortem examination performed on a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death is called ________.
Autopsy
Evidence with individual characteristics can lead to a determination of common origin (single source).Which type of evidence CANNOT yield such results?
individual
A component of the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network is called
IBIS
The stiffness of death is called as __________
Rigor Mortis
CODIS
Combined DNA Index System
GSR
Gunshot residue
PDQ
Paint Data Query
AFIS
Automated Fingerprint Identification System
IBIS
Integrated Ballistics identification system
The average fingerprint has approximately how many individual ridge characteristics?
150
The International Association for Identification concluded that the minimum number of friction ridge characteristics which must be present in two impressions in order to establish positive identification is:
No minimum
Whorls are divided into how many distinct groups?
4
What is the basis for the determination of the primary classification of fingerprints?
the presence or absence of whorl patterns
For most fingerprint examiners, the chemical method of choice for visualizing latent prints is:
Ninhydrin
What was the original fingerprinting system adopted by Scotland Yard in 1901 which converted ridge patterns on all 10 fingers into a series of letters and numbers arranged in the form of a fraction?
Henry System
he first textbook written on the subject of fingerprints, and which was called Finger Prints, was written by:
Francis Galton
Attempts at changing one's fingerprints by trying to obscure them has led to:
the possibility of permanent scarring which only provides new characteristics for identification purpose since it is impossible to obliterate all ridge characteristics.
The oldest chemical method used to visualize latent prints is:
Iodine Fuming
A technique for visualizing latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces by exposing them to cyanoacrylic vapors is:
SuperGlue Fuming
Which term refers to a print found at a crime scene?
Latent Fingerprint
Points on a fingerprint where ridge characteristics changes are called ____ and they help us match prints.
Minutiae
What is another term for a fingerprint?
Dactologram
The fingerprints that have one or more ridges that enter from one side of the print, re-curve, and exit from the same side are
Loop
The fingerprints that have ridge patterns that are generally rounded or circular and have 2 deltas is called
Whorl
The fingerprints formed by ridges entering from one side of the print, rising slightly and exiting on the opposite side are called
Arches
The most common type of fingerprint pattern is the
lOOP
How many minutiae points must be in common in order for prints to be considered matches?
No minimum
What was the original fingerprinting system adopted by Scotland Yard in 1901 which converted ridge patterns on all 10 fingers into a series of letters and numbers arranged in the form of a fraction?
Henry System
The boundary between the epidermis and dermis of the skin that determines the form and pattern of ridges on the surface of the skin is called
Dermal Epiphele
The study of uniqueness of friction ridge structures and their use of personal identification
Dactology