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UCOL weekly flashcards 11
Terms in this set (25)
What are the two phases of glycolysis?
energy investment phase and energy payoff phase
What happens in the energy investment phase of glycolysis?
2 ATP molecules are "spent" as the sugar is phosphorylated in glycolysis to allow splitting of sugar.
What happens in the energy payoff stage of glycolysis?
4 ATP + 2 NADH are produced.
In glycolysis, what three energy-holding molecules are produced, and how many of each molecule is produced?
2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate molecules.
What 3-carbon molecules are produced in glycolysis, and where do these molecules go after glycolysis?
Pyruvate molecules. They go to pyruvate oxidation after glycolysis.
What energy-holding molecules are produced in the pyruvate oxidation step of glycolysis?
What molecule produced in the pyruvate oxidation step of glycolysis does not contain chemical energy, and diffuses out of the body?
What is the final molecule produced in the pyruvate oxidation step of cellular respiration, and what process does the molecule enter into?
3-CoA (Acetyl CoA).
What energy-holding molecules are produced in the citric acid cycle, and what quantity of each is produced (per each acetyl-CoA)?
4 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP.
What are the two processes of oxidative phosphorylation?
ETC and chemiosmosis.
What molecules are processed in the electron transport chain (ETC), and where did these molecules come from?
FADH2 and NADH are processed. They came from the citric acid cycle.
What specific location is the site of the ETC?
In a series of molecules in the mitochondrial membrane.
What is the function of the ETC?
To release energy stored in NADH and FADH2 in a series of very controlled steps.
In the ETC, what happens to electrons released by NADH and FADH2?
They are passed from less electronegative molecules to more electronegative molecules, releasing energy.
What does equal/unequal sharing of electrons have to do with the ETC?
This is how energy is released.
What is the final electron acceptor in the ETC, and why is this molecule superbly suited for this function?
The final electron acceptor is the fourth multiprotein complex.
What molecule is produced at the end of the ETC when the final electron acceptor accepts electrons?
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
What is chemiosmosis?
The use of the potential energy from the H+ gradient, built by the ETC, to make ATP.
What is ATP synthase, and where exactly is it located?
It is an enzyme the converts ADP to ATP. It is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by the light reactions in chemiosmosis.
The conversion of inorganic carbon (CO2) into organic forms (sugars).
In what ways do plants use the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis?
They use it for energy.
Where in the cell do the reactions of photosynthesis occur?
In the chloroplast.
Where, exactly, are enzymes and pigments of the light reactions located?
In the thylakoid membrane.
Recommended textbook explanations
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
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