QM Exam 2
Terms in this set (97)
What is the accepted half-value layer for an x-ray beam operating at 80 kVp?
2.3 mm Al
A department performs a total of 1720 views per month; 146 views must be repeated. What is the repeat rate of this department?
Which of the following is required during evaluation of AEC systems?
1.Response to changes in mA
2. Response to changes in ambient temperature
3. Density selector switch function
1 & 3 only
Which of the following is true in comparing CR versus film-screen radiography?
Collimation and part centering are especially critical for CR images
Images of radiographic grids taken with a homogenous phantom are used for evaluation of which of the following grid parameters?
The repeat rate for mammographic departments should not be greater than
Given following data, what is the HVL of an x-ray beam whose initial value without any added filtration?
1.5 mm Al; 75 R/min
Which of the following is/are a possible advantage(s) of DR versus CR radiography?
Lower patient dose
During evaluation of a dry laser printer, the optical density of the patches from an SMPTE or AAPM TG18 test pattern should not vary by more than +/-
As a result of evaporation, the x-ray tube filament becomes progressively thinner as it ages. The vaporized tungsten is frequently deposited on the window of the glass envelope. This may do which of the following?
1. Act as an additional filter
2. Reduce the amount of x-rays emitted from the tube
3. Result in arcing and tube puncture
1 & 2 only
The laser used in most CR reader units emits light in which portion of the color spectrum?
The minimum brightness of a collimator illuminator bulb is ___ ft-cd at 100 cm
When a fluoroscopic system equipped with automatic brightness control is in operation, what is the acceptance parameter for maximum entrance exposure rate?
less than 2.6 mC kg-1 min-1
The primary beam should be restricted to the diameter of the input phosphor to within +/- ___ % of the SID
Which device is used to evaluate the relationship between the central ray and the field of exposure?
Beam alignment tool
The intensity of the x-ray beam at the tabletop should not exceed __ R/min for units that are equipped with the ABS
The video monitor of a fluoroscopic system should be evaluated with a test pattern created by which of the following agencies?
The classification of film-screen artifacts includes all except ______ artifacts.
How often should quality control testing of fluoroscopic equipment be performed?
The voltage ripple of a three-phase, six-pulse x-ray generator is about ___%
Which of the following is used by most PACS systems to specify how certain software components should interact with other software components?
Application program interfaces
How does filtration affect the primary beam of x-rays?
it increases the average energy
The fluoroscopic scan mode by which the x-ray tube delivers radiation in short, high-intensity bursts is which of the following?
pulsed, interlaced scan mode
According to NEMA standards, a 0.5-mm focal spot cannot vary by more than __% of the manufacturer's stated size.
In a radiographic unit with positive beam limitation, the sum of the misalignment between the x-ray field and image receptor should not vary by more than ___% of the SID
How many HVLs are required to reduce the intensity of an x-ray beam to less than 10% of the original value?
Which of the following is an image artifact that appears as a result of very low mAs exposure factors?
Which of the following is the type of image intensifier artifact that results from projecting an image onto a flat surface?
Which of the following is defined as the ratio of the maximum white level displayed by a monitor to the minimum black level?
What is the name of the effect that occurs when the focal spot in an x-ray tube undergoes a change in size with age or high mA?
Beam quality is best defined as the ____ energy of the photons in the x-ray beam?
The radiographic collimation system should be evaluated at least ____
Reproducibility variance of radiographic equipment must be within ___%
Off-focus radiation may be minimized by which of the following?
Restricting the x-ray beam close to the source
A radiograph emerges from a processor with numerous dark, treelike, or branching artifacts. Which of the following would most likely be the cause?
The coulomb/kg of air is an SI unit for measuring radiation intensity. What would be the older special unit for radiation intensity?
The mR/mAs value can be used to measure which of the following?
output of the x-ray generator
Values from daily phantom scans for most bone densitometry scans should fall to within ± __% of accepted values.
The most important acceptance test to perform on radiographic grids is the evaluation of grid:
Which of the following is defined as the likelihood of a patient obtaining a negative diagnosis when no disease is present?
Which of the following is found inside the image receptor used for a CR system?
The eight-penny test can be used to evaluate which of the following parameters?
Collimation devices for radiographic equipment should be accurate to within __% of the SID.
Which of the following would be defined as the ability of an x-ray machine to produce constant radiation output at various conditions of mA and exposure time producing the same mAs?
Which of the following would be defined as the increase in image brightness resulting from the difference in size between the input and output phosphors
A hospital radiology department performs 1356 views during a 1-month period. Of these, 187 have to be repeated. What is the repeat rate for this department?
Exposure linearity of x-ray generators must be maintained to within a limit of __%.
The contrast ratio of electronic display devices should have a contrast ratio of greater than which of the following?
The main advantage of using a multifield image intensifier is which of the following?
a magnification option is available
Types of DSA include which of the following?1. Temporal mask subtraction2. Time-interval difference subtraction3. Dual-energy subtraction
1, 2, & 3
Which of the following is/are performed to evaluate automatic exposure control systems?1. Response to changes in part thickness2. Density control function3. Response to changes in mA stations
1, 2, & 3
The measurement of radiation intensity emitted from an x-ray source during evaluation of a diagnostic x-ray unit would be best accomplished by which of the following devices?
Which of the following increases the brightness of a fluoroscopic image?1. An increase in kVp2. An increase in mA3. An increase in pulse width
1, 2, & 3
The evaluation of kVp accuracy is important in quality control evaluation of x-ray generators because this parameter will affect which of the following?1. Radiographic contrast2. Radiographic optical density3. Patient exposure
1, 2, & 3
What is the minimum frequency with which a visual inspection of radiographic equipment should be performed?
Which of the following should be tested when evaluating the x-ray beam restriction system of a radiographic unit?1. Light field/radiation field congruence2. Centering of the light and radiation fields3. Radiation field and image receptor congruence
1, 2, & 3
The amount of variation allowed for x-ray generator linearity is ± __ %.
The backup timer for automatic exposure control systems should guarantee that the maximum exposure does not exceed __mAs.
Which of the following is/are possible advantage(s) of digital versus film-screen radiography?
Lower patient dose
All of the above
all of the above
When performing a repeat analysis survey, the specific causes of repeats to be evaluated would include which of the following?1. Positioning error2. Improper optical density3. Processing malfunctions
1, 2, & 3
Which of the following is not a "tube" type of television camera?
Most quality control tests on radiographic equipment should be performed at least __.
Which of the following would be defined as the degree to which an x-ray generator can maintain the same output of radiation for the same exposure settings?
Failure to maintain darkroom cleanliness can cause which of the following?
When the framing rate of a cine camera exceeds __ frames per second, the human eye perceives the images as continuous.
How often should quality control testing be performed on fluoroscopic equipment?
Most quality control tests on radiographic x-ray generators need to be performed at least __.
A film-screen radiograph with numerous dark, tree-like markings would be indicative of which of the following artifacts?
Which material is most often used in the input phosphor of an image intensifier?
Incremental changes in mAs should create the same changes in the exposure rate measured from an x-ray generator. This statement best summarizes the concept of which of the following terms?
What is another name for the true negative fraction (TNF)?
The voltage ripple value achieved by a 3-phase, 6-pulse x-ray generator is about __%.
The evaluation of automatic exposure control systems to compensate for changes in part thickness of kVp values is determined from which of the following?
optical density readings from images of a homogenous phantom
A repeat analysis is performed in a mammographic department on a volume of 1100 mammographic images. Which of the following number of repeat images is considered to be within accepted limits?
The primary beam should be restricted to the diameter of the input phosphor to within ± __ % of the SID.
The ratio of the exposure in milliroentgen to the mAs used for an exposure (mR/mAs) or microcoulomb per kilogram to the mAs used for an exposure (μC kg-1/mAs) can be used to evaluate which of the following?
x-ray generator output
Which of the following is the fluoroscopic scan mode by which the x-ray tube delivers radiation in short, high-intensity bursts?
pulsed, interlaced scan mode
The voltage ripple that can be achieved with a high-frequency x-ray generator can be as little as __%.
A quality control test on the reproducibility of an x-ray generator is performed at 100 mA, 80 kVp, and 100 ms. The measured output was 6.7 mR/mAs, 6.9 mR/mAs, and 6.6 mR/mAs. Which of the following is the correct conclusion for this x-ray generator?
the x-ray generator is functioning within accepted parameters
Evaluation of protective apparel (lead aprons and gloves) should include which of the following?
radiographic or fluoroscopic inspection
What is the formal term whereby display monitors can map an image of one matrix size to a display of another size?
A series of film images are obtained with the same film-screen cassette in which a clear area appears in the same location. What is the most likely cause of these images?
dirt or foreign matter on the intensifying screen
Which of the following is true in comparing CR versus DR radiography?
Dr systems are not subject to saturation like CR systems
Which of the following are components of a CR system?1. Image receptors2. Reader unit3. Workstation
1, 2, & 3
Which of the following digital artifacts can appear, even though there has been no x-ray exposure of the image receptor?
What is the formal name for the type of image intensifier artifact that results from projecting an image onto a flat surface?
A film image emerges from an automatic film processor with numerous scratches that run in the same direction as that of film travel. These are most likely which of the following artifacts?
guide shoe marks
A radiographic film image emerges from an automatic film processor with numerous lines that run perpendicular to the direction of film travel. What type of artifact is present?
The color of light that is emitted from an intensifying screen phosphor material should correspond to the color of light that the film is sensitive to. This is known as which of the following?
Which of the following digital artifacts would not occur in DR systems?
Which of the following is the type of device in which an image is transferred from a CRT onto a hard-copy film?
Filtration that is added to the x-ray beam of a diagnostic x-ray generator will do which of the following?1. Increase the quality of the beam.2. Increase the intensity of the beam.3. Decrease the number of low-energy photons.
1 & 3
Lead aprons must have a minimum lead equivalent thickness of at least __ mm.
In radiographic x-ray generators equipped with positive beam limitation, the sum of the misalignment between the x-ray field and the image receptor should not differ by more than __% of the SID.
The SI unit, microcoulomb per kilogram of air (μC kg-1), can be used to replace which of the following special units?
The video monitor of a fluoroscopic system should be evaluated with a test pattern created by which of the following organizations?
An x-ray beam with no filtration creates an intensity measurement on a dosimeter of 100 mR/min. If 2.0 mm of aluminum filtration is added to the beam reducing the intensity to 25 mR/min, what is the half-value layer thickness for this x-ray beam?