- Lack of stable political system.
- Lack of consolidated party systems.
- No effective legal system.
- Lack of "state control"
- Too much "state control"
- Insecurities: poverty, unemployment, inequality inflation, etc.
- Lack of a large middle and/or educated class.
- Transition may include painful reforms.
- Cleavages (ethnic, racial, religious, linguistic, etc.)
-How deal with "the past"?
-Under-developed democratic norms, beliefs, values
-Nostalgia for the past.
- Anti-system sentiment; protest not directed at incumbent govt, but at political system.
- Crises of legitimacy (input and/or output)
Organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests
ie: protests, boycotts, ect
Germany: Strong Civil Society
Russia: Restricted, due to tax codes, the process of registering with authorities (which can be made difficult), police harassment, people get falsely accused with crimes such as tax evasion and divulging state secrets, also the meida is privatized and many of those who own media organizations support Putin. Also, economic pressure is put on media groups which are not loyal to Putin so that they are unable to speak out against the government without being severely punished.
South Africa: Civil Society groups are pressured by ANC to be loyal to the ANC, however there are many groups that are not loyal to the ANC. One group called the Treatment Action Campaign was able to pressure the government into changing its policies on HIV/AIDS. One major actor is organized labor which is led by the Congress of South Africa Trade Unions (COSATU). Also, most of the media is not controlled by the ANC.
Germany: 16 states, or Länder
States share power with federal government, have exclusive power over education, administration of justice at a state level, culture, and law enforcement. Any area not covered under Basic Law, which are not included in defense or foreign policy, (these are controlled by the federal government) is given to the states. -The States implement the legislation passed by the federal government, and due to having representation in the upper house of the legislature, states have a sort of check on the federal government.
-Each state has its own Unicameral legislature, which selects a minister-president (governor).
South Africa: 9 provinces
-Each has its own elected assembly
-Each of which have their own constitutions, pass legislation, and send delegates to the National Council of Provinces
Russia: Contains over 80 different regional bodies
-21 republics, 46 oblasts (provinces) 9 krays (territories), 4 autonomous okrugs (districts), and 2 federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg)
-Each of these bodies have different regional rights (unequal power)
-Government influence has made it so that federalism is very weak.