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Terms in this set (97)

1 Actor-based theories.
• Focus on political elites.
- Democratization = contingent on actions of elites and key individuals
- Change = result of elite action.
- "Structure" (e.g. institutions, the economy, state-society relations, political culture) of secondary

2 Emphasis on successful economic
- Example: "shock therapy"
Rapid implementation of reforms to establish free market economy, esp.
- Sudden release of price and currency controls
- Privatization.
- Withdrawal of state subsidies
- Trade liberalization

3 Emphasis on successful political transition.
- Example: institutional theories
• Democratization and consolidation depends on
establishment of functioning and legitimate institutions.
- Especially important: "institutionalizing competitive politics"
• "Legacies of the past" = important constraints,
but they not key determinant of transition process.
• One key difficulty (among others): lack of
consolidated party system can undermine
"competitive politics."
- Fragmented party system: many parties to choose from.
- Lack of stability: great deal of flux.
- Lack of identifiability and accountability

4 Emphasis on interplay between economic
and political transitions.
- Example: Structural theories
• Emphasis on "legacies of the past," e.g.:
- Economic backwardness
- Planned economies
- Unfinished nation-building
- Culture of intolerance
- Weak state, seen as illegitimate
- Weak civil society
• Key to democratization: economic development But:
- Economic reform must take place such that it maintains support for political reform;.
- Must be politically sensitive and socially aware.
- Citizens must feel that economic reform is working.
Weaknesses of Weimar Republic:
1. Lacked a democratic tradition
2. Post War (WWI) Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones as well
3.Millions of Germans blamed the Weimar Republic not its wartime leaders for their country's defeat
4.The Versailles treaty

Basic Law:
• Avoids concentration of power in hands of one
actor or institution.
• Power dispersed to prevent extremists and
anti-democrats to undermine system.
• Democracy set up as a consensus-building
-Similar to a constitution
1. cooperative federalism in which the federal gov and state gov share power
2. guaranteed an elaborate set of basic political, social, and economic rights
3. weak indirectly elected head of state
4. political power is concentrated in the head of government, the chancellor, who is elected by and directly responsible to the legislature
5. powerful and independent judiciary to check the government

1st weakness: many extremist parties which were able to gain political power. This is a problem because the extremist views which these parties had only represented a very small group of the minority. Also, this is a problem because these extremist parties could abuse government power to further their own goals. The Basic Law corrects this by dispersing power so that even if extremist parties were able to gain power, they would be unable to take advantage of their power in such a way which would empower their radical ideas.

2nd weakness: One problem was that the government did not have to represent the will of the people. This can be seen when the WR signed the treaty of Versailles. When the WR signed this treaty, many people were outraged at the government and felt as if the WR had betrayed them. This is a problem because the WR had the power to make decisions which negatively impacted the people without the consent of the people. The Basic Law addressed this by limiting the power of the head of state so much that the head of state can only act in accordance to the chancellor who is elected by and directly responsible to the legislature which represents the people. This fixes the weakness because the head of the government and the head of state are responsible to the legislature which represents the people so the government should not make a decision which is against the will of the people.

3rd weakness: A third weakness of the WR was that there was a lack of a democratic tradition. This means that the WR did not use a democracy or a republic to base its government on and instead chose the British Monarchy as a blueprint for the WR President. This is a problem because the President was given power similar to those of a monarch and there was no way to check his power. By creating an independent judiciary, the Basic Law was able to address this problem and create a check on the government's power so that if the government sought to abuse its power, the court could stop it.
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.

The factors that private firms & the state control may differ between mixed economies. For example, one country may have the state distribute the land between private firms while another country may allow the firms to purchase land from others.

The value of different resources and goods may differ between mixed economies due to laws and other economic policies such as taxes which a government imposes.

1.) Fiscal Policy
- Extraction and spending of government money
- Encourage people to spend or save money
- Encourage spending on some
Purpose: Paying for government services and redistribution through taxes as well as to stabilize spending if there is inflation (discourage spending) or deflation (encourage spending).

2.) Monetary Policy
- Central bank actions determines the money supply, ex: by setting national interest rates or engaging in open market operations
Purpose: help manage spending in order to keep inflation at bay.

3.) Regulation
-Regulation of "the market" to achieve certain goals
Purpose: to protect the rights and make sure that no one is taken advantage of. Ex; 1. For companies: ensure that contractual obligations are met. 2. For employees: protection against exploitation, discrimination, ect... 3. For consumers: protection against fraud

4.) Trade Policy
- Quotas (import and exports)
o Limit quantities of incoming or outgoing goods
- Tariffs
o Taxes on imported goods
- Non tariff barriers
o Rules that effect cross-border economic activity
Purpose: to try and stimulate economy by making domestic goods more appealing or to raise funding for the government