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The fixed energies an electron can have

Energy Levels

The amount of energy used to move energy levels


The region of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron


The way electrons are arranged in various orbitals

Electron Configurations

Electrons occupy the lowest energy level first

Aufabu Principle

An orbital can have at most two electrons

Pauli Exclusion Principle

electrons must be evenly placed before doubling up

Hund's rule

Height of a wave


Distance between crests


number of wave cycles in any given time


units of frequency, reciprocal of seconds


Different frequencies separate into colors


the frequencies of light emitted by an element separate into discrete lines

Atomic emission spectrum

lowest possible energy level

Ground state

Light quanta or particles


it is impossible to know the velocity and position of the particle at the same time

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Atoms are tiny indestructible particles with no internal structure


"plum pudding" model, electrons are embedded in a sphere of positive charge


small dense positively charged nucleus, electrons orbit around


electrons orbit at fixed distances


electron cloud model


half the distances between the nuclei of two atoms

Atomic radius

an atom or a group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge


an ion with a positive charge


an ion with a negative charge


the energy required to remove and electron from an atom

Ionization Energy

an atom's ability to attract electrons when it's a compound


Group 1A

Alkali metals

Group 2A

Alkali Earth metals

Group 7A


Group 8A

Noble gases

all A groups excluding the noble gases

Representative elements

D block

Transition metal

F block

Inner Transition metal

when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties

Periodic law

Good conductors of heat and electricity


Poor conductors of heat and electricity


Has properties similar to both metals and nonmetals


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