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Chemistry Chapter 5

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The fixed energies an electron can have
Energy Levels
The amount of energy used to move energy levels
Quantum
The region of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron
Orbital
The way electrons are arranged in various orbitals
Electron Configurations
Electrons occupy the lowest energy level first
Aufabu Principle
An orbital can have at most two electrons
Pauli Exclusion Principle
electrons must be evenly placed before doubling up
Hund's rule
Height of a wave
Amplitude
Distance between crests
Wavelength
number of wave cycles in any given time
Frequency
units of frequency, reciprocal of seconds
Hertz
Different frequencies separate into colors
Spectrum
the frequencies of light emitted by an element separate into discrete lines
Atomic emission spectrum
lowest possible energy level
Ground state
Light quanta or particles
Photons
it is impossible to know the velocity and position of the particle at the same time
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Atoms are tiny indestructible particles with no internal structure
Dalton
"plum pudding" model, electrons are embedded in a sphere of positive charge
Thompson
small dense positively charged nucleus, electrons orbit around
Rutherford
electrons orbit at fixed distances
Bohr
electron cloud model
Schroedinger
half the distances between the nuclei of two atoms
Atomic radius
an atom or a group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
Ion
an ion with a positive charge
Cation
an ion with a negative charge
Anion
the energy required to remove and electron from an atom
Ionization Energy
an atom's ability to attract electrons when it's a compound
Electronegativity
Group 1A
Alkali metals
Group 2A
Alkali Earth metals
Group 7A
Halogens
Group 8A
Noble gases
all A groups excluding the noble gases
Representative elements
D block
Transition metal
F block
Inner Transition metal
when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
Periodic law
Good conductors of heat and electricity
Metals
Poor conductors of heat and electricity
Nonmetals
Has properties similar to both metals and nonmetals
Metalloid