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Bio 161 exam 3
Terms in this set (97)
What is the function of the skeletal system?
Storage of Minerals
Storage of Fat
Blood cell production
What is the location and structure of Spongy Bone?
Found at the expanded head of bones and fills irregular bones, Stores red bone marrow
repeating circular sructures that make up compact bone
mature bone cells (immobile)
cavity that holds osteocytes
central canal (haversian canal)
a space running longitudinally through the center of an osteon, containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
stores fat and cartilidge
fills the spaces in the spongy bone, and forms red and white blood cells and platelets
membrane surrounding the bone
what is the bone matrix?
kills chondrocytes and immobilizes osteoblasts to form osteocytes
How does cartilage transform to bone during development?
Ossification - which is the process that bone is broken down by osteoclasts and rebuilt by osteoblasts
how does bone continue to grow after birth?
Chondrocytes add length and osteocytes add width
What regulates the growth of bone before and after puberty?
When do bones stop growing?
When ossification catches up with proliferation, this is when growth plates are sealed, all cartilage is now replaced with bone
What factors regulated bone remodeling?
-exercise (experience with stress bearing),
-hormones: estrogen, parathyroid hormone(PTH), calcitonin, vitamin D
Remodeling (bone turnover)
a normal healthy process of replacing bone matrix
what is the role of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, thyroid and parathyroid in the process of bone remodeling?
Osteoclasts - breaks down bone matrix
Osteoblasts - rebuilds broken down matrix into mature bone matrix
Thyroid - provides energy for growth through calcitonin
Parathyroid - regulates calcium levels in bones
How are fractures healed?
Formation of blood clot (hematoma), formation of fibrocartilaginous callus, formation of bony callus, bone remodeling
what causes osteroperosis and why is it more common in post-menopausal women?
osteoperosis is happens when the creation of bone cant keep up with the dissolving. Older women get it because they are more frail and have less calcium
what happens to the bone in a person with osteoperosis?
The bones in this person become brittle and weak and are easily fractured
what are the two types and causes of arthritis
Osteoarthritis -cartilage becomes weak so the bone become more stiff and break easily
Rheumatiod arthritis- synovial membrane (synovium) is attacked resulting in swelling and pain of the bones
what are the four characteristics of all muscle?
excitable, contractile, extensible and elastic
end of muscle attached to the bone that does most of the moving
attachment of muscle to less movable bone
attaches muscle to bone
muscles that contract and work together
muscles that exert force in the opposite directions around the same joint
what is the structural organization of a muscle
muscle cells, bundles of myofibrils, sarcomere, actin filaments, myosin filaments
thin strands inside the muscles that hold muscle cells
the contractile unit of a skeletal muscle; contains actin and myosin myofilaments
cytoskeletal filaments of eukaryotic cells composed of the protein actin, also refers to the thin filaments of muscle cells
major protein of muscle; makes up thick filaments in myofibrils of muscle fibers
1st step in the muscle contraction mechanism
1. myosin not bound to actin
2. ADP and P bound to myosin
3. troponin/tropomyosin blocking actin and myosin binding to cross bridge attachment
2nd step in muscle contraction mechanism
1. nervous system stimulates muscle and Ca++ enters the muscle cell
2. Ca++ binds, troponin/tropomyosin move out of the way so myosin can bind to actin
3rd step in muscle contraction mechanism
1. myosin head pivots causing ends of actin to move closer together
2. ADP andP are released
3. myosin is still bound to actin
4th step in muscle contraction mechanism
1. ATP binds to myosin causing it to be released from actin
2. myosin is in "pivot" position; forward myosin reactivation
5th step in muscle contraction mechanism
1. ATP becomes ADP and P, energy used to "reset" myosin head
what is the role of ATP during the muscle contraction?
used to detach myosin from actin
what is the source of ATP during light to moderate exercise compared to intense exercise?
what role does tropomyosin/troponin, Ca++, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and t-tubules play during muscle contraction?
Troponin/tropomyosin - regulate exposure of myosin to Ca++
Ca++ - binds to myosin and triggers contraction of muscles
Sarcoplasmic reticulum - stores calcium
t-tubules - carry action potential to muscle cells
what are the two types of mucsles and their characteristics
Fast twitch- most muscles are this type, large in diameter, use anaerobic, fatigue rapidly, densly packed myofibrils
Slow twitch- contract slowly, endurance; slow fatigue, aerobic
always have some motor units active at some time (involuntary reaction); maintained by few active motor units
skeletal muscle fibers are organized in motor units. all muscle fibers within a motor unit are stimulated by a single somatic motor neuron so that muscle fibers contract in unison
what is the function of blood?
transportation, regulation and protection
what is found in the plasma of blood?
dissolved substances, albumins , globulins, clotting proteins
what are the three formed elements in blood?
platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells
from what do all formed elements originate?
bone marrow stem cells
component of blood necessary to blood clotting; thrombocyte
enzyme that converts fibrinogen leads threads during blood clotting
insoluble protein threads formed from fibrinogen during blood clotting
plasmin in clot formation
degrades many blood plasma proteins including fibrin clots
blood clot that remains in the blood vessel where it was formed
moving blood clot that is carried through the blood stream
What are the five types of white blood cells and the function of each?
neutrophils - defend against bacterial or fungal infrction and other very small inflammatory processes; first responders
eosinophils - primarily deal with parasitic infections and also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions
basophils - allergic and antigen response by releasing an antihistamine causing vasodilation (dilation of blood cells
monocytes - share the "vacuum cleaner"(phagocytosis) function of neutrophols because they can swallow a particle whole by drawing the particle into a vacuole of its cytoplasm
lymphocytes - makes antibodies the bind to pathogens for destruction, help coordinate the immune response and kill cells that are virus or tumor infected
what changes take place in a red blood cell as it matures?
they have no nucleus; their biconcave shape comes out because they lose their nucleus during maturation, the biconcave shape gives them greater surface area for the diffusion of gases in and out of the cell
what is the structure and function of hemoglobin?
its function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and then transport CO2 back to the lungs, 4 oxygen molecules per trip, looks like a maze of tubes criss-crossing
how long does a a red blood cell live?
about 120 days
why do red blood cells not live longer?
no nucleus to make new proteins
where and how are blood cells recycled?
spleen and liver are graveyards for RBC where macrophages devour and recycle their parts for example the hemoglobin is recycled
how does the kidney regulate red blood cell production?
kidneys release a hormone called erythropoietin which stimulates the stem cells in bone marrow to produce more blood cells
what antigens and antibodies are present in individuals with blood types A, B, AB, and O
Type A - A antigens and B antibodies
Type B - B antigens and A antibodies
Type AB - both A and B antigens and no A or B antibodies
Type O - neither A or B antigens and both A and B antibodies
which type of blood cell can each receive during a transfusion and why?
Type A - can receive A and O but not B or AB because it has B antibodies
Type B - can receive B and O but not A or AB because it has A antibodies
Type AB - can receive all blood types because it has not antibodies
Type O - can only receive O because it has A and B antigens
what is the Rh factor and does everyone have it?
indicates that the person has RBC's with an extra D antigen; not everyone has them
why is a concern during pregnancy?
what is anemia?
a condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.
what three types of anemia were discussed in class?
iron deficiency anemia - affects ability to carry oxygen, hemoglobin without iron wont bind to oxygen
Sickle cell anemia - a severe hereditary form of anemia in which a mutated form of hemoglobin distorts the red blood cells into a crescent shape at low oxygen levels
pernicious - a deficiency in the production of red blood cells through a lack of vitamin B12
what is mononucleosis and leukemia?
mononucleosis - an abnormally high proportion of monocytes in the blood
Leukemia - cancer, causes production of abnormal lymphcytes; symptoms - same as mono and easy bruising (decrease of platelets)
Describe the differences in oxygen content and pressure between arteries, areterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries
arteries - high oxygen content and the highest pressure
arterioles - high oxygen content and regulate blood pressure
capillaries - release oxygen content into various places around the body and have slightly lower pressure than arterioles
venules - low oxygen content and regulate blood pressure
veins - low oxygen content and the lowest pressure
which vessels are largest and which are smallest?
largest vessels - veins
smallest vessels - capillaries
what are the general functions of arteries, veins, and capillaries?
arteries - carries oxygenated blood away the heart to rest of body, 3 layers (thick)
vein - carries deoxygenated blood to the heart, drains waste ridden blood from skeletal muscles, 3 layers (thin)
capillaries - distribute oxygen and other things stored in red blood cells around the body
how is blood flow regulated through capillary beds?
pre-capillary sphincters control the blood flow through capillaries close and open certain one to regulate blood flow
how does blood change as it flows through the capillaries?
the contents in red blood cells such as oxygen and other necessary nutrients for the body are diffused out while in capillaries
what function does the lymphatic system play as blood flows through the capillaries?
finds blood cells that escaped from the circuit and brings them back to the capillaries, one that aren't brought back are destroyed by lymph nodes
how does blood travel from the veins in the lower extremities of the heart?
valves, skeletal muscles, breathing
trace the flow of blood through the pulmonary and systemic circuit
pulmonary veins-> left atrium-> bicuspid/mitral valve-> left ventricle -> aortic semilunar valve-> aorta-> arterioles-> capillaries (where we deliver oxygen and pick up CO2)-> venules-> veins-> superior/inferior vena cava-> right atrium -> right ventricle -> pulmonary artery
what is the cardiac cycle and what are the events that occur during one cycle?
refers to a complete heartbeat from its generation to the beginning of the next beat, and so includes the diastole(relaxing) , the systole(contracting) , and the intervening pause
"pacemaker" of the heart, stimulates atria contract, located in wall of right atrium, controlled by hormones and the nervous system
make sure that the atria fully contracts
what happens during P, QRS, and T waves of and ECG
P - atria contracts
QRS - right ventricle contracts
T - ventricle relax
high blood pressure of no known origin and over time is a major risk factor for hypertensive heart disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease.
an artery wall thickens as a result of the invasion and accumulation of white blood cells
coronary artery disease
a plaque build up in your coronary arteries and is dangerous because if left unchecked could cause blood clots and stop blood flows to major organs such as the heart (heart attack) or brain (stroke)
what occurs during a heart attack?
A heart attack occurs when a coronary artery becomes suddenly blocked, stopping the flow of blood to the heart muscle and damaging it. All or part of the heart muscle becomes cut off from its oxygen supply. Left without oxygen, the heart muscle is injured
a symptom of a variety of diseases, where parts of a person's body swell to massive proportions
a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system, which normally returns interstitial fluid to the thoracic duct and then the bloodstream.
blood cell tumors the develop in the lymphatic system, Symptoms may include enlarged lymph nodes that are not generally painful, fevers, sweats, itchiness, weight loss, and feeling tired
Regulation of blood Ca++ (calcium)
Thyroid - detects high blood calcium level, releases clacitonin, stimulates buildup of bone by osteoblasts, blood Ca++ level decreases
Parathyroid- detects low blood calcium level, releases parathyroid hormone, stimulates breakdown of bone by osteoclasts, blood level Ca++ increases
Bone fracture types
an organic compound that provides a quick source of energy for muscle fibers to contract when they need an initial burst of energy
anaerobic and aerobic respiration
aerobic- uses oxygen, for high energy exercising, produces lots of ATP
anaerobic- doesn't use oxygen, for short bursts of energy, uses stored ATP
Muscular dystrophy's are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.
medical condition characterized by chronic widespread pain and a heightened and painful response to pressure.
localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel.
veins that have become enlarged and twisted
muscular tissue of the heart
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