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Micro test 1 lecture 1
Terms in this set (20)
Who made the first observation of microorganisms? (1673)
Who demonstrated that physicians transmitted childbirth fever or puerperal sepsis from one obstetrical patient to another by not washing their hands between patients? (1840)
Ignaz Semmelweis (Hungarian physician)
Who used the observations of Semmelweis and the knowledge that phenol killed bacteria to treat surgical wounds and sprayed operating rooms with the disinfectant? ( 1870)
Who disproved "spontaneous Generation"? (1861)
Pasteur and others
Who provided the first proof that bacteria actually cause disease cause disease. This first proof was also the discovery of ____________, the organism that produces what disease?
Robert Koch; Bacillus anthracis; anthrax
Robert Koch also discovered the organisms responsible for what along with anthrax?
TB and Cholera
What are Koch's postulates?
1. The organism must always be found in the diseased animal but not in healthy ones.
2. The organism must be isolated from diseased animals and grown in pure culture.
3. The organism isolated in pure culture must initiate and reproduce the disease when reinoculated into susceptible animals.
4. The organism should be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.
What does it mean if you have confirmed all 4 of Koch's postulates?
then what you have is the cause of the disease
The modern era of antibiotics developed after who discovered what class of drugs while testing a red dye for antibiotic activity? What was the red dye called? What was the active ingredient (the antibacterial agent) in it?
Gerhard Domagk, sulfa drugs; prontosil; sulfonilamide
In 1982, who noticed that bacteria wouldn't grow around a mold containing one of his cultures? What was the mold? What did he name the inhibitor? Did he isolate it?
Fleming; Penicillium chrysogenum; Penicillin; no
Who isolated penicillin and what did it make a major change in?
Florey and Chain; WWII bc it combated bacterial wound infections
Who recorded the transmission of viral disease through a bacteriological filter (about 0.2 microns)? He coined the term ______ which he indicated the agent was in ____ form. Later the agent was proved to be _____.
Iwanowski; virus; fluid; particulate
What was developed in the 1940s that allowed the visualization of viruses?
What allowed virsuses to be cultered outside animal models?
animal cell culture techniques
What are viruses?
obligate intracellular parasites
In 1949, who developed cell culture techniques for growing poliovirus? This enabled _____ to develop the ______ vaccine.
Enders, Weller, Robins (they won the Nobel prize); Salk; Salk polio
The Salk utilizes an _________ particle. Is it the current vaccine for immunization against polio?
inactivated poliovirus; yes
Name the different polio vaccines and what we use today?
Salk-> Saban (live particles) -> Salk (today)
Who described reverse transcriptase? What does this enzyme do? They shared the nobel prize with Renato for describing what?
Howard Temin & David Baltimore; transcribes DNA from an RNA template; how some viruses can cause cells to transform into cancer cells.
Who published an article about Scrapie? This disease is in what animals? It is caused by what? What other disease is also caused by the same thing?
Stanley Prusiner (won Nobel prize); sheep; infectious protein or "prion"; Mad Cow disease.
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