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62 terms

stars

STUDY
PLAY
how many earths make up across and fill up the sun?
100 across, 1 million to fill up
surface temperature
about 6000 (5780k)
what is going on in core of sun?
hydrogen fusing helium 200,000km
radiation zone
next above the core 300,000km
convection zone
third part of sun, above the radiation zone 200,000 km
photosphere
500 km 'surface' above convection zone- light comes out
chromosphere
above photosphere-
corona (solar wind)
above chromosphere
1 electron and 1 proton
hydrogen atom
2 protons and 2 neutrons
helium
sunspots
cooler temperature and intense magnetic field
definition of star
a glowing ball of gas held together by its gravity and powered by nuclear fusion
sunspot year
11 yr
solar system
22 yr
what can you find with brightness and distance?
luminosity
what can you find with luminosity and temp
radius
whats other property of star measurements?
mass and temp
how do you measure mass?
binary using keplers third law
how do you measure temperature(surface)
weins law/ or color spectrum of star
low mass stars
remnants end up being white dwarfs
high mass stars
become neutron stars or black hole
<1.4
white dwarfs
>1.4
neutron star
main sequence >10=low mass
white dwarf
>10=high mass
neutron or blackhole
luminosity
energy produces
brightness
brightness from sky
brightness equation
luminosity/(4piDistance^2)
apparent magnitude
(brightness)5th=100x brighter
the higher the number in magnitude, the blank the object?
dimmer
the lower the magnitude number, the black it is
brighter
what highest magnitude can we still see cuz of brightness
6
absolute magnitude
(luminosity) both stars at the same distance
-cant measure luminosity w/ out distance
radius of star
stefan boltemann's law-the hotter the object, the brighter the energy per unit area x temp^4
type II supernova
death of high mass stars
Chandrasekhar limit
if the mass if below C.L then the gravitational pull is stuck and turns into a white dwarf. cant compress any further
white dwarf
small hot star --cycle starts over
red giant
cool temperature- no fusion in core
yellow giant
fuses helium to carbon
main sequence
birth of star--hydrogen to helium fusing
horizontal branch
still bigger yellow giants
unstable magnetic field
SUN
once we have luminosity from HR diagram..
we can find brightness and then distance!
after main sequence star becomes...
red giant
steps of star:
1. main sequence
2. red giant
3. yellow giant
4. red giant
5. planetary nebula
6.white dwarf
hydrostatic equillibrium
gravity and pressure forces must balance out
before explosion
8-10
after explosion
1.4
nova
not normal part of star, white dward and it happens to be w/ binary stars, its pulling materials from other stars, increasing its mass
1500 degrees
white dwarf fuses and glows really bright blows material and goes out and then starts over the cycle
type Ia (super nova)
same as nova; explosion can occur when white dwarf is pulling material from other stars
planetary nebula
death of a low mass star step of life cycle after red giant such. explosion, then turns to white dwarf
HR DIAGRAM: Y AXIS AND X AXIS
Y=LUMINOSITY
X=TEMPERATURE
paralax
geometric method, luminosity (standard candle)
variable stas
unstable, pulse-brighter than dimmer
cepheid variouble
pulse slow- rapidly- near by ones how luminous it was went w/ how fast it pulsed
-how we measure the distance of the dragmatra galaxy (standard candle)
the slower the pulse
the more luminous
increasing in temperature
red giant-sun-white dwarf
young stars
main sequence
have a short life span
upper left corner
middle aged stars
on main sequence
supernova
high mass stars