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how many earths make up across and fill up the sun?

100 across, 1 million to fill up

surface temperature

about 6000 (5780k)

what is going on in core of sun?

hydrogen fusing helium 200,000km

radiation zone

next above the core 300,000km

convection zone

third part of sun, above the radiation zone 200,000 km


500 km 'surface' above convection zone- light comes out


above photosphere-

corona (solar wind)

above chromosphere

1 electron and 1 proton

hydrogen atom

2 protons and 2 neutrons



cooler temperature and intense magnetic field

definition of star

a glowing ball of gas held together by its gravity and powered by nuclear fusion

sunspot year

11 yr

solar system

22 yr

what can you find with brightness and distance?


what can you find with luminosity and temp


whats other property of star measurements?

mass and temp

how do you measure mass?

binary using keplers third law

how do you measure temperature(surface)

weins law/ or color spectrum of star

low mass stars

remnants end up being white dwarfs

high mass stars

become neutron stars or black hole


white dwarfs


neutron star

main sequence >10=low mass

white dwarf

>10=high mass

neutron or blackhole


energy produces


brightness from sky

brightness equation


apparent magnitude

(brightness)5th=100x brighter

the higher the number in magnitude, the blank the object?


the lower the magnitude number, the black it is


what highest magnitude can we still see cuz of brightness


absolute magnitude

(luminosity) both stars at the same distance
-cant measure luminosity w/ out distance

radius of star

stefan boltemann's law-the hotter the object, the brighter the energy per unit area x temp^4

type II supernova

death of high mass stars

Chandrasekhar limit

if the mass if below C.L then the gravitational pull is stuck and turns into a white dwarf. cant compress any further

white dwarf

small hot star --cycle starts over

red giant

cool temperature- no fusion in core

yellow giant

fuses helium to carbon

main sequence

birth of star--hydrogen to helium fusing

horizontal branch

still bigger yellow giants

unstable magnetic field


once we have luminosity from HR diagram..

we can find brightness and then distance!

after main sequence star becomes...

red giant

steps of star:

1. main sequence
2. red giant
3. yellow giant
4. red giant
5. planetary nebula
6.white dwarf

hydrostatic equillibrium

gravity and pressure forces must balance out

before explosion


after explosion



not normal part of star, white dward and it happens to be w/ binary stars, its pulling materials from other stars, increasing its mass

1500 degrees

white dwarf fuses and glows really bright blows material and goes out and then starts over the cycle

type Ia (super nova)

same as nova; explosion can occur when white dwarf is pulling material from other stars

planetary nebula

death of a low mass star step of life cycle after red giant such. explosion, then turns to white dwarf




geometric method, luminosity (standard candle)

variable stas

unstable, pulse-brighter than dimmer

cepheid variouble

pulse slow- rapidly- near by ones how luminous it was went w/ how fast it pulsed
-how we measure the distance of the dragmatra galaxy (standard candle)

the slower the pulse

the more luminous

increasing in temperature

red giant-sun-white dwarf

young stars

main sequence

have a short life span

upper left corner

middle aged stars

on main sequence


high mass stars

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