UNG History Exam
Terms in this set (100)
Part of old Golden Horde, defeated by Muscovites opening Siberia for Russian access to trade
Successor to Mongol kingdom
Turks who descended from Uzbek Khan, the greatest Golden Horde ruler
The mongol khanate
those who departed
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; the Tiger
Union of Kreva
Lithuania united with Poland, transforming Lithuania into a Catholic state
Mongol governing principles, it also used Islamic and Indian practices as well
Mongols name for Russian Tsar
successor state to the Mongol Empire in China
Russian provoker on southern Russia's border
Golden khan, Qing emporer
rival to the Qing's dominion over Inner Asia
What is the primary point of the Central Asia since the Mongols Etext module?
Despite severe instability, Central Asia remained an important region in world history because powerful rulers continued to compete for control over it.
Why is it difficult to consider the Ming Dynasty a Mongol successor state?
The Ming did not see value in the Mongol heritage and feared the Mongols.
One of the unintended consequences of the breakup of the Mongol Empires in the Middle East was
A renewed notion of Iran
Why did Muscovy rise?
They were the tax collectors for the Mongols and this gave them access to wealth.
The Mughal Empire was influenced by Mongol and which other two civilizations?
Islamic and Indian
Traded gold, along with slaves and ivory, to the Swahili ports on the east African coast for cloth, spices, and other goods. They left behind few artifacts and fewer written records
The Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
The Battle of Chaldiran
16th Century. The Safavids vs the Ottomans; Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together; religious war (Shi'ites Vs. Sunnis).
Founder of Safavid Empire; made Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers became known as qizilbash.
Oruc Reis (Barbarossa - Redbeard)
most famous of the Ottoman commanders
Divided regions in the Ottoman Empire by religion (Orthodox Christians, Jews, Armenian Christians, Muslims). Leaders of each millet supported the Sultan in exchange for power over their millet.
Orthodox Church changed into a mosque
Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled Persia between 16th and 18th centuries.
slave soldiers who formed the elite within the Ottoman army
Shah Abbas Mirza I
to solidify Shiism in Persia while also trying to stimulate Persia's participation in the global economy.
Capital of the Safavid Empire.
silk was the second most desirable product from Asia
a fort built here by the Portuguese; helped stop Muslim traders reach India.
Persian Gulf port used by the Safavids to trade with Europe
Din-I ilahi ("divine faith")
alleviate religious divisions
official language of Pakistan
expanded the borders of the empire to their greatest extent though he failed to bring stability to the empire
Battle of Swally
The British fleet destroy the Portuguese fleet.
Why were ports cosmopolitan in the Western Indian Ocean?
Why did Islamic land-based empires expand towards Indian Ocean ports?
Growing demand for luxury goods
How did the Ottoman Empire constitute their navy?
They used pirates and gave them the authority to combat other powers at sea
Safavid Shahs used _ and _ to help boost their income as their land trade declined.
carpets and faux porcelain (Gombroon)
founded the Ming dynasty
elite administrators had developed that was key to running any unified Chinese empire
The curriculum for the examinations followed the teachings of
Taizu or Hongwu
Titles of emperors, "Great Ancestor", "Great Military Prowess"
believed that everybody had the potential to understand the world and distinguish between good and evil
commanded huge fleets of treasure ships
serve as the home of the Emperor and his household, and the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government.
Elimination of the office of Chancellor
Removing him created a more autocratic government structure
Sometimes known as Tamerlane, this was the Central Asian leader of a Mongol tribe who attempted to re-establish the Mongol Empire in the late 1300's. His empire included Persia (Iran) and many surrounding lands. He is the great great grandfather of Babur. who later founds the Mughal Empire in India.
The Ming Emperor Yongle was best known for
his ambitious project such as the Grand Canal, the treasure fleet, and moving the Ming capital to Beijing
The Ming Dynasty was able to achieve all of the following EXCEPT:
Assert Mongol rule over the Chinese people for a second time
Zhu Yuanzhang's vision for China included all of the following except:
allowing freedom of movement so that peasants could follow opportunities wherever they might lead.
The Ming Dynasty abandoned overseas exploration and direct trade because of all of the following factors EXCEPT:
the belief that all people should be treated equally and that conquest was a damaging process.
South China was important to the Ming because:
the rivers provided easy transportation for the abundant agricultural goods produced in the countryside.
How does the attitude towards merchants change in Ming China?
Because of the opportunities to trade, merchants made money and bought the trappings of sophistication--gardens, literacy, etc.
He opened the Great Wall and let the Manchu army into China
united the Manchus in the early 17th century; defeated the Ming and established the Qing dynasty, Jurchen chieftain in Jianzhou
Jin dynasty, founded Qing empire
Qing Chinese Emperor, coined Manchu
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.
unification of the Jurchen, eight of them
Ming generals that rebelled against the Qing as it ascended to power over the Chinese cultural area.
Controlled Southern China.
-1681, Qing forces crush the rebellion, which was largely led by Wu Sengui
Ruled in the Qing Dynasty for 61 years, a period of stability and prosperity.
Most striking example of the Qing outreach to China's local elites
Grandson of Kangxi, peace and prosperity
enormous feat of preservation by Qianlong
extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions
foster the martial virtues of the Manchus
Treaty of Nerchinsk
Qing and Russia, to determine at least in part a border between these two large empires
The conquest of the huge Western territories, under the Qianlong Emperor was an enormous triumph of logistics over nature
The Qing Dynasty unified their authority by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
allowing China to devolve into fragments
The Qing dynasty became stable because of all of the following factors EXCEPT:
the genocide of non-Manchu people
The Qing government relied on bureaucracy and direct connections between the Qing and their Chinese subjects. How did this differ with regard to the non-Chinese subjects along the Central Asian steppe?
The steppe groups were allowed to keep their own administrations.
How did the Qing rulers, Kangxi and after, establish their power?
by coordinating with existing elites to administer the empire
The banner system (choose all that apply)
created independent standing-army units, contributed positively to the Qing dynasty's ability to administer such a large empire
The Qing Dynasty unified their authority by doing all of the following
Re-organizing the imperial military using the banner system
Eliminated the political and military challenges posed by the Mongols
Creating a new bureaucracy that emphasized autonomy and loyalty to the Manchu Dynasty
The Qing dynasty became stable because of all of the following factors
the long reigns of Kangxi and Qianlong
the direct inspection of the provinces by the rulers
the patronage of traditional arts, literature, and knowledge
a military government founded by the warlord Tokugawa Ieyasu
Closed Japan to west
government by military strongmen
powerful territorial lords ruling large hereditary land holdings in premodern Japan. Hereditary mulitary dictators known as Shogun usually rose from among the daimo. (feudal)
real central power had instead been wielded for a while by military strongmen
Daimyo who hoped to control all of Japan and seized Kyoto
General under Nobanga; suceeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Armored Korean ships
practice of shoguns requiring samuari to spend extended periods of time at the court in Edo
Minister provoked Daimo to draw sword, he then had to commit suicide, and then his apprentices
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
The floating life, entertainment districts
Island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Why did the Dutch continue to trade with Japan despite the restrictions placed upon them by the Tokugawa government?
the Dutch wanted to maintain their position in the copper trade
Toyotomi Hideyoshi's power was illustrated by all of the following
killing his liege lord and usurping his followers
mounting an invasion of Korea
militarily attacking and taking over the remaining 1/3 of Japan
The alternate attendance system
enabled the Tokugawa shoguns to ensure their vassals' obedience by holding a family member hostage and forcing these vassals to come to Edo regularly.
According to your Etext, Tokugawa Japan is important for all of these reasons
cultural and economic development
closing Japan to almost all European visitors
the innovative way it dealt with challenges from nobles
The Tokugawa decision to regulate contact with the outside world
helped centralize government power by giving them control of trade and limiting contact with foreign ideas, such as Christianity.