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Psychology Chapter 4 Test
Terms in this set (26)
1. What is the difference between sensation and perception? (pg 97)
Sensation is the stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory information to the central nervous system.
Perception is the psychological process through which we interpret sensory stimulation. Perception is the way we see things.
2. Define absolute threshold, difference threshold, and signal detection theory AND give examples of each. (pg. 97-99)
Absolute threshold - the weakest amount of a particular stimulus that can be sensed.
ex. dog's absolute threshold for certain sounds is different from that of a human being.
difference threshold - minimum amount of difference that can be detected between two stimuli.
ex. smallest amount of difference you can see in order to distinguish between the two shades of blue is your difference threshold.
3. What is meant by the term sensory adaptation? How does sensory adaptation help us deal with our environment? (pg. 98)
Sensory adaptation is the process by which people become more sensitive to weak stimuli and less sensitive to unchanging stimuli. When lying on the beach we eventually will stop hearing the waves because the sound is unchanging
4. What is selective attention? Give an example of how we use selective attention with our environment? (Notes)
Cocktail party - What we choose to hear or what we're used to hearing - when we're having a conversation but hear our name in a loud room
5. What is light and what colors can we see on the spectrum? (pg. 102)
Light is electromagnetic energy & is described in wavelengths (ROYGBIV)
6. What are the functions of the pupil, lens, retina, and photoreceptors? (pg 102)
Pupil - control the amount of light that gets into the eye.
Lens - adjusts to the distance of objects by changing its thickness.
Retina - transfer light into electrical impulses so that your brain can interpret them.
Light hits the photoreceptors, a nerve carries the visual to the brain - the information is relayed to the visual area of the occipital lobe
7. What is the blind spot and where is it located? (pg. 103)
The part of the retina that contains no photoreceptors, it is located in the optic nerve head within the retina
8. What is the difference in function between a rod and a cone? (pg. 103)
Rods - brightness of light
cones - color
9. What are the three colors that make up color vision? (pg. 104)
red green and blue
10. What is an afterimage and why do they occur (include complementary colors)? (pg. 103-104)
A visual illusion (afterimage) in which retinal impressions persist after the removal of a stimulus, believed to be caused by the continued activation of the visual system. This typically occurs when when the eye's photoreceptors adapt to overstimulation and lose sensitivity.
11. What does it mean to be completely color blind? How is this different from the color blindness that is most common? Which type of color blindness is most common? (pg. 105)
Partially or totally unable to distinguish color due to an absence of (or malfunction) in the cones. Green & red are most common.
12. What is the difference between pitch and loudness? (pg. 107)
Pitch - sound waves can be very fast occurring many times per second
Loudness - of a sound is determined by the height, or amplitude, of sound waves
13. What are the functions of the eardrum, cochlea, and auditory nerve? (pg. 108)
Eardrum - sound waves travel through the ear canal to reach the eardrum.
Cochlea - It is composed of sensory cells called hair cells, which convert vibrations into neural messages
auditory nerve - messages are passed from the cochlea to here & then carried up to the brain
14. How do we locate sound when it is behind or in front of us? (pg. 108)
Turn your head to hear if the sound becomes louder in one ear - If you turn to your right - the loudness increases in your left ear the sound must be in front of you.
15. What is the difference between conductive deafness and sensorineural deafness? Give one example of how someone could become each as well as treatments or for them. (pg. 108-109)
Conductive deafness - occurs because of damage to the middle ear; old age; Treatment - hearing aid
Sensorineural deafness - can be mild, moderate, or severe and is usually caused by damage to the inner ear. Most often, the neurons in the cochlea are destroyed; Can be caused by disease or through prolonged exposure to very loud sounds; treatment - cochlear implant
16. What nerve sends the message of smell to the brain? (pg. 112)
17. What four types of taste receptors do most researchers agree on? What is the fifth? (pg. 112)
Sweet, sour, salty, and bitter; some argue for a 5th basic taste - umami - meaty/savory
18. What else does the flavor of food depend on besides taste? (pg. 112)
odor, texture, and temperature
19. What receptors does the your skin have a combination of? Do all parts of your body have an equal number of these receptors? (pg. 112-113)
A combination of pressure, temperature, and pain. No, some spots are more sensitive.
20. What is gate theory? (pg. 113)
The idea that only a certain amount of information can be processed by the nervous system at a given time
21. Define vestibular senses and kinesthesis. (pg. 114)
Vestibular sense - the sense that provides information about the position of the body
Kinesthesis - the sense that provides information about the position and movement of individual body parts
22. What do Gestalt psychologists believe about perception? List and explain the five rules of perceptual organization. (pg. 116-117)
The whole is more than the sum of its parts to the study of perception. Closure, figure-ground perception, proximity, similarity, continuity, and common fate.
23. How do we know we are moving (perception of movement)? (pg. 117)
look for objects that you know are stable like buildings, signs,or trees; if you are steady in relation to them, then your vehicle is not moving.
24. What is the difference between monocular and binocular cues? Give an example of each and how it shows depth perception. (pg. 118-119)
Monocular cues: cues for distance that need only one eye to be perceived
Binocular cues: visual cues for depth that require the use of both eyes
25. What are the four perceptual constancies? How does each affect perception? (pg. 120)
Size, color, shape, and brightness constancies
26. What is an illusion? Do they work in all cultures? (pg. 121)
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. They do not work in all cultures.
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