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Microbio303: Microbial Diversity Intro & Acid Mines
Terms in this set (31)
What percent of the carbon made by primary producers goes to decomposers?
What percent go to grazers? Which then go to predators.
90% go to decomposers
10% go to grazers
What do decomposers make that go back to the primary producers?
CO2 and minerals
Production of biomass:
1)What produce the most biomass in oceans and then for forests?
What are the 4 compounds in which lots of the organic carbon is tied up?
Cellulose, chitin, lignin, and protein
The community physiology picture:
1)What does cellulose, lignin, chitin, and proteins get depolymerized into?
2)What do lipids & fats get broken down into? And by what?
3)What does sugars and amino acids get broken down into and by what?
4)What do nucleotides get broken down into and by what?
5)Acetate is either attacked by ____ or ____
6)Acetogens take ____ and _____ to make more acetate
7)What happens under low sulfate conditions
8)What happens when sulfate is present?
9)Which are more efficient, methanogens or sulfate reducers?
1)lipids & fats, sugars and AA, and nucelotides
2)H2 & CO2 by
3)Acetate by other fermenters
4)H2O and CO2 by
5)Acetate is either attacked by
6)Acetogens take H2 and CO2 to make more acetate
7)methanogens dominate (take acetate to make CH4 and H2O) AND lactate, succinate, and ethanol,acetate will be converted to H2 & CO2 and then get convereted to CH4 and H2O
8)Lactate, succinate, and ethanol,acetate are used by sulfate reducers to convert to H2S + H2O + CO2
9)Sulfate reducers are more efficient than methanogens
The community psysiology diagram:
1)What are the major products?
2)What are the major products under aerobic conditions?
3)Under anaerobic conditions no SO4?
4)Under anaerobic conditions with SO4?
1)Major products=acetate, CO2, H2O, H2, and CH4
2)Aerobic conditions=H2O and CO2
3)Anaerobic with no SO4= CH4 + H2O (
4)Anaerobic with SO4= H2S + H2O + CO2 (
Sulfate reducers dominate
It is hard to identify what microbes are dead and which are alive, what is one way to identify microbes? What is the example?
that detect viability
-oxidized, colorless, soluble
-reduced, fluorescence red, insoluble
-think about the biofilm example with DAPI and
CTC stained biofilms
When culturing cells it shows much higher or lower numbers? By how much?
20 to 100-fold less
If microscopy shows there are lots of cells present but culturing shows much lower numbers, what does this mean about the culture?
Culture medium is inefficient
What are the techniques for identifying microbes?
: fluorescence in situ hybridization
: PCR amplification of 16s rRNA/sequence
: whole sampling sequence
-sequence cDNA libraries of mRNA expression
-LC/GC: mass spectroscopy
1)Probes are specific to identifying a domain--T or F?
2)What are the different things it can detect?
1)FALSE: probes can be designed for any sequence--because use 16s rRNA?
2)Domain, Phylum, and Species
1)What is it specifically used for?
2)You run the PCTR reaction with _____ rRNA primers.
1)Used to get a survey of species
2)Run PCR reaction with 16S rRNA primers
What are the steps of whole genome sequencing?
-Isolate DNA from environment
-Break up sequences
1)Is the study of the a subset or entire set of small molecules in a biological system?
2)What technique is associated with this?
3)It can determine hundreds of compounds in a single run--T or F?
1)Is the study of the
set of small molecules in a biological system
2)Hook up separation technology to
Capillary electrophoresis, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography are associated with what identification technique?
If you want to determine the microbial community of terrestrial soil, what would be the best method for doing this?
: can use to get a survey of species
*Metagenomics: whole sample sequencing of DNA
If you have already characterized the community of a unique microbe, how would you determine where in the soil structure this unique microbe is found?
1)Mining which involves digging, exposes what to the air?
2)What is the temperature?
3)What is the pH?
1)Exposes minerals to the air
2)Temperature= 4-37 degrees C
1)What effect does the low pH have on iron oxidation rates?
2)Microbial activity is ____% of AMD?
3)By classic culture techniques, __________ is not a major player
4)What are the primary microbial groups?
iron oxidation rates at low pH
Describe the oxidation of FeS2--Iron Pyrite.
-further chemical oxidation releases
-This reacts with water making acid
-Causes red/orange color
What cause the red/orange color is acid mines?
The reaction of Fe (III) with water, making acid
What are the groups found in the mines?
-Leptospirillum group II (75%) and group III (10%)
: Sulfobacillus (6-8%)
: 1 and 2
What is the primary producer of acid mines? Describe where the energy comes from?
-Energy from chemicals (oxidation of FeS2 and other sulfur compounds)
-Carbon from CO2
-Nitrogen from Nitrogen fixation
Autotrophs fix what by the Calvin Cycle and the
1)Are gram negative or positive?
2)What shape are they?
4)They oxidize ____ with oxygen.
5)They do ___ fixation by reductive TCA cycle
4)They oxidize Fe2+ with oxygen
5)They do CO2 fixation by reductive TCA cycle
What are the similarities and differences between Fe oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation?
-O2 terminal acceptor
-reverse dehydrogenase to make NADPH
-reverse flow of electrons
What is the dominant species in acid mines?
1) What oxidation do they do?
2)What is unique to them?
3)What reductive pathway do they use?
4)What is their pH range?
2)No cell wall
3)Reductive Acetyl-CoA pathway
What species in the acid mines does not have a
and uses the reductive Acetyl-CoA pathway.
Eukaryotes in acid mines:
1)How do they grow? And on what?
2)What are some examples?
3)What do protists graze on?
: grow on dead primary producers/growing in excretions
2)Fungi & Protists
3)Protists graze on bacteria & they have a limit population?
What classification is Nitrospira?
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